IDEAS home Printed from
   My bibliography  Save this article

The Mano River Union at 40: from customs liberalisation to confidence building


  • Peter Walkenhorst
  • Jean-Christophe Maur


The Mano River Union of Côte d'Ivoire, Guinea, Liberia and Sierra Leone is turning 40. The MRU was founded in October 1973 with the principal aim of advancing economic development through trade integration. The organisation largely ceased activities during the civil wars that engulfed its founding members Liberia and Sierra Leone from the late 1980s to the early 2000s. The violent conflicts highlighted the importance of a broader mandate covering peace, security, good governance, and inclusiveness for regional development when the MRU was formally reactivated in 2004 and restarted operations since 2008. The organisation's focus is nowadays largely on enhancing peace and security in border regions in order to re-establish the foundations for cross-border commerce and investment. Going forward, the union could additionally play a useful role in the regional coordination of mining activities, the spearheading of trade facilitation initiatives, and the collection of consistent policy information and statistics.

Suggested Citation

  • Peter Walkenhorst & Jean-Christophe Maur, 2014. "The Mano River Union at 40: from customs liberalisation to confidence building," African Journal of Economic and Sustainable Development, Inderscience Enterprises Ltd, vol. 3(2), pages 89-102.
  • Handle: RePEc:ids:ajesde:v:3:y:2014:i:2:p:89-102

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL:
    Download Restriction: Access to full text is restricted to subscribers.

    As the access to this document is restricted, you may want to search for a different version of it.

    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Adam, Anokye M. & Tweneboah, George, 2008. "Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) and Stock market Development: Ghana Evidence," MPRA Paper 11261, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    2. Eduardo Fernández-Arias & Ricardo Hausmann, 2000. "Is FDI a Safer Form of Financing?," IDB Publications (Working Papers) 1318, Inter-American Development Bank.
    3. de Mello, Luiz R, Jr, 1999. "Foreign Direct Investment-Led Growth: Evidence from Time Series and Panel Data," Oxford Economic Papers, Oxford University Press, vol. 51(1), pages 133-151, January.
    4. Prema-chandra Athukorala & Satish Chand, 1998. "Trade Orientation and Productivity Gains from International Production: A Study of Overseas Operations of US Multinationals," Departmental Working Papers 1998-02, The Australian National University, Arndt-Corden Department of Economics.
    5. Bekaert, Geert & Harvey, Campbell R. & Lundblad, Christian, 2001. "Emerging equity markets and economic development," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 66(2), pages 465-504, December.
    6. repec:idb:wpaper:416 is not listed on IDEAS
    7. Eduardo Fernández-Arias & Ricardo Hausmann, 2000. "Is FDI a Safer Form of Financing?," Research Department Publications 4201, Inter-American Development Bank, Research Department.
    8. Charles Komla Adjasi & Charles Amo Yartey, 2007. "Stock Market Development in Sub-Saharan Africa; Critical Issues and Challenges," IMF Working Papers 07/209, International Monetary Fund.
    9. Demirguc-Kunt, Ash & Levine, Ross, 1996. "Stock Market Development and Financial Intermediaries: Stylized Facts," World Bank Economic Review, World Bank Group, vol. 10(2), pages 291-321, May.
    10. Liu, Xiaming & Wang, Chengang & Wei, Yingqi, 2001. "Causal links between foreign direct investment and trade in China," China Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 12(2-3), pages 190-202.
    11. Akinlo, A. Enisan, 2004. "Foreign direct investment and growth in Nigeria: An empirical investigation," Journal of Policy Modeling, Elsevier, vol. 26(5), pages 627-639, July.
    12. Ricardo Hausmann & Eduardo Fernández-Arias, 2000. "Foreign Direct Investment: Good Cholesterol?," IDB Publications (Working Papers) 1319, Inter-American Development Bank.
    13. Henry, Peter Blair, 2000. "Do stock market liberalizations cause investment booms?," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 58(1-2), pages 301-334.
    14. Nauro F. Campos & Jan Hanousek & Randall K. Filer, 1999. "Do Stock Markets Promote Economic Growth?," CERGE-EI Working Papers wp151, The Center for Economic Research and Graduate Education - Economics Institute, Prague.
    15. Charles Amo Yartey, 2008. "The Determinants of Stock Market Development in Emerging Economies; Is South Africa Different?," IMF Working Papers 08/32, International Monetary Fund.
    16. Rajneesh Narula & John Dunning, 2000. "Industrial Development, Globalization and Multinational Enterprises: New Realities for Developing Countries," Oxford Development Studies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 28(2), pages 141-167.
    17. Catalan, Mario & Impavido, Gregorio & Musalem, Alberto R., 2000. "Contractual savings or stock market development - Which leads?," Policy Research Working Paper Series 2421, The World Bank.
    18. Claessens, Stijn & Klingebiel, Daniela & Schmukler, Sergio L., 2006. "Stock market development and internationalization: Do economic fundamentals spur both similarly?," Journal of Empirical Finance, Elsevier, vol. 13(3), pages 316-350, June.
    19. Beck, Thorsten & Demirguc-Kunt, Asli & Levine, Ross, 1999. "A new database on financial development and structure," Policy Research Working Paper Series 2146, The World Bank.
    20. Ricardo Hausmann & Eduardo Fernández-Arias, 2000. "Foreign Direct Investment: Good Cholesterol?," Research Department Publications 4203, Inter-American Development Bank, Research Department.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)


    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:ids:ajesde:v:3:y:2014:i:2:p:89-102. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Darren Simpson). General contact details of provider: .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    We have no references for this item. You can help adding them by using this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.