The Liberal State, Economic Development and the Crisis of the 1890s: Joao Crisóstomo and José Frederico Laranjo
Founded in 1876, the Portuguese Progressive Party sought to serve as an alternative political formation to the then ruling Regenerator Party. Whilst fairly unanimous in its critique of the so-called ‘material improvements’ policy, the party did not, however, produce any coherent economic option. Although generally in favour of budgetary ‘economies’, in line with prevailing nineteenth-century liberal thinking, the Progressives have not reached full internal agreement on this matter, even less so as regards the issue of protectionism versus free-trade. This paper describes the huge diversity of ideas within the party, as exemplified by the cases of João Crisóstomo and José Frederico Laranjo.
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