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A Report of Contemporary Rammed Earth Construction and Research in North America

Author

Listed:
  • Bly Windstorm

    () (North American Rammed Earth Builders Association (NAREBA) and Earth Dwell Ltd., Port Townsend, WA 98368, USA)

  • Arno Schmidt

    () (North American Rammed Earth Builders Association (NAREBA) and Ecosol Design and Construction Ltd., Vancouver, BC, V5L 2J4, Canada)

Abstract

Contemporary stabilized rammed earth (SRE) draws upon traditional rammed earth (RE) methods and materials, often incorporating reinforcing steel and rigid insulation, enhancing the structural and energy performance of the walls while satisfying building codes. SRE structures are typically engineered by licensed Structural Engineers using the Concrete Building Code or the Masonry Building Code. The construction process of SRE creates structural walls of relatively high compressive strength appropriate for a broad range of heating and cooling climates. The incorporation of rigid insulation creates a high mass interior wythe that is thermally separated from the exterior, resulting in improved thermal performance. Modular aluminum reinforced formwork allows walls to be built without the use of through ties, common in concrete construction. The North American Rammed Earth Builders Association (NAREBA) collaborated with Unisol Engineering Ltd. and the British Columbia Institute of Technology (BCIT) on a battery of tests to obtain preliminary data to be used in support of engineering design. The tests included compressive strength comparisons, pull out rebar testing of both horizontally and vertically placed steel, simple beam tests, and the deflection of two composite wall columns with an insulation core and two types of reinforcing steel connections between the RE wythes.

Suggested Citation

  • Bly Windstorm & Arno Schmidt, 2013. "A Report of Contemporary Rammed Earth Construction and Research in North America," Sustainability, MDPI, Open Access Journal, vol. 5(2), pages 1-17, January.
  • Handle: RePEc:gam:jsusta:v:5:y:2013:i:2:p:400-416:d:23216
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    More about this item

    Keywords

    rammed earth; stabilized rammed earth; insulated rammed earth; steel reinforced rammed earth; contemporary rammed earth construction; structural rammed earth; North American Rammed Earth Builders Association (NAREBA);

    JEL classification:

    • Q - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics
    • Q0 - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics - - General
    • Q2 - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics - - Renewable Resources and Conservation
    • Q3 - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics - - Nonrenewable Resources and Conservation
    • Q5 - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics - - Environmental Economics
    • Q56 - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics - - Environmental Economics - - - Environment and Development; Environment and Trade; Sustainability; Environmental Accounts and Accounting; Environmental Equity; Population Growth
    • O13 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Economic Development - - - Agriculture; Natural Resources; Environment; Other Primary Products

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