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Sustainable Community Sanitation for a Rural Hospital in Haiti

Author

Listed:
  • Jay N. Meegoda

    () (Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, New Jersey Institute of Technology, University Heights, Newark, NJ 07102, USA)

  • Hsin-Neng Hsieh

    (Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, New Jersey Institute of Technology, University Heights, Newark, NJ 07102, USA)

  • Paul Rodriguez

    (Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, New Jersey Institute of Technology, University Heights, Newark, NJ 07102, USA)

  • Jason Jawidzik

    (Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, New Jersey Institute of Technology, University Heights, Newark, NJ 07102, USA)

Abstract

A fully sustainable sanitation system was developed for a rural hospital in Haiti. The system operates by converting human waste into biogas and fertilizer without using external energy. It is a hybrid anaerobic/aerobic system that maximizes methane production while producing quality compost. The system first separates liquid and solid human waste at the source to control carbon to nitrogen ratio and moisture content to facilitate enhanced biodegradation. It will then degrade human waste through anaerobic digestion and capture the methane gas for on-site use as a heating fuel. For anaerobic decomposition and methane harvesting a bioreactor with two-stage batch process was designed. Finally, partially degraded human waste is extracted from the bioreactor with two-stage batch process and applied to land farming type aerobic composter to produce fertilizer. The proposed system is optimized in design by considering local conditions such as waste composition, waste generation, reaction temperature, residence time, construction materials, and current practice. It is above ground with low maintenance requirements.

Suggested Citation

  • Jay N. Meegoda & Hsin-Neng Hsieh & Paul Rodriguez & Jason Jawidzik, 2012. "Sustainable Community Sanitation for a Rural Hospital in Haiti," Sustainability, MDPI, Open Access Journal, vol. 4(12), pages 1-15, December.
  • Handle: RePEc:gam:jsusta:v:4:y:2012:i:12:p:3362-3376:d:22296
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    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Helen H. Jensen & Stanley R. Johnson & Gary Stampley, 1990. "Nutrition in Haiti: Evidence from the Haiti Household Expenditure and Consumption Survey," Center for Agricultural and Rural Development (CARD) Publications 90-sr52, Center for Agricultural and Rural Development (CARD) at Iowa State University.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    More about this item

    Keywords

    bio-digester; human waste; sustainable; developing countries; compact; two-chamber; low water content; above ground;

    JEL classification:

    • Q - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics
    • Q0 - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics - - General
    • Q2 - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics - - Renewable Resources and Conservation
    • Q3 - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics - - Nonrenewable Resources and Conservation
    • Q5 - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics - - Environmental Economics
    • Q56 - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics - - Environmental Economics - - - Environment and Development; Environment and Trade; Sustainability; Environmental Accounts and Accounting; Environmental Equity; Population Growth
    • O13 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Economic Development - - - Agriculture; Natural Resources; Environment; Other Primary Products

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