Sustainable Zero-Valent Metal (ZVM) Water Treatment Associated with Diffusion, Infiltration, Abstraction, and Recirculation
Socio-economic, climate and agricultural stress on water resources have resulted in increased global demand for water while at the same time the proportion of potential water resources which are adversely affected by sodification/salinisation, metals, nitrates, and organic chemicals has increased. Nano-zero-valent metal (n-ZVM) injection or placement in aquifers offers a potential partial solution. However, n-ZVM application results in a substantial reduction in aquifer permeability, which in turn can reduce the amount of water that can be abstracted from the aquifer. This study using static diffusion and continuous flow reactors containing n-ZVM and m-ZVM (ZVM filaments, filings and punchings) has established that the use of m-ZVM does not result in a reduction in aquifer permeability. The experimental results are used to design and model m-ZVM treatment programs for an aquifer (using recirculation or static diffusion). They also provide a predictive model for water quality associated with specific abstraction rates and infiltration/injection into an aquifer. The study demonstrates that m-ZVM treatment requires 1% of the weight required for n-ZVM treatment for a specific flow rate. It is observed that 1 t Fe 0 will process 23,500 m 3 of abstracted or infiltrating water. m-ZVM is able to remove >80% of nitrates from flowing water and adjust the water composition (by reduction) in an aquifer to optimize removal of nitrates, metals and organic compounds. The experiments demonstrate that ZVM treatment of an aquifer can be used to reduce groundwater salinity by 20 –> 45% and that an aquifer remediation program can be designed to desalinate an aquifer. Modeling indicates that widespread application of m-ZVM water treatment may reduce global socio-economic, climate and agricultural stress on water resources. The rate of oxygen formation during water reduction [by ZVM (Fe 0 , Al 0 and Cu 0 )] controls aquifer permeability, the associated aquifer pH , aquifer Eh and the degree of water treatment that occurs.
When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:gam:jsusta:v:2:y:2010:i:9:p:2988-3073:d:9634. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (XML Conversion Team)
If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.
If the full references list an item that is present in RePEc, but the system did not link to it, you can help with this form.
If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.
Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.