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The Cash Flow/investment Relationship: Evidence from U.S. Manufacturing Firms

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  • Stephen C. Vogt

Abstract

This paper explores reasons for the strong relationship between cash flow and capital investment spending. The equilibrium level of Tobin's q is used to distinguish between liquidity constraints arising from asymmetric information and managerial over-investment of free cash flow. Results suggest that both the Jensen (1986) free cash flow and the Myers and Majluf (1984) pecking order hypotheses are potential explanations for the investment/cash flow relationship. Free cash flow behavior appears to arise most strongly in large, low-dividend firms when they invest in tangible assets. Pecking order behavior appears to arise in smaller, low-dividend firms and in firms making less tangible investments.

Suggested Citation

  • Stephen C. Vogt, 1994. "The Cash Flow/investment Relationship: Evidence from U.S. Manufacturing Firms," Financial Management, Financial Management Association, vol. 23(2), Summer.
  • Handle: RePEc:fma:fmanag:vogt94
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    Cited by:

    1. Shen, Chung-Hua & Luo, Fuyan & Huang, Dengshi, 2015. "Analysis of earnings management influence on the investment efficiency of listed Chinese companies," Journal of Empirical Finance, Elsevier, vol. 34(C), pages 60-78.
    2. Goergen, Marc & Renneboog, Luc, 2001. "Investment policy, internal financing and ownership concentration in the UK," Journal of Corporate Finance, Elsevier, vol. 7(3), pages 257-284, September.
    3. Chen, Sheng-Syan & Ho, Kim Wai & Lee, Cheng-few & Yeo, Gillian H. H., 2000. "Investment opportunities, free cash flow and market reaction to international joint ventures," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 24(11), pages 1747-1765, November.
    4. Lee, Hei-Wai & Gentry, James A., 1995. "An empirical study of the corporate choice among common stock, convertible bonds and straight debt: A cash flow interpretation," The Quarterly Review of Economics and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 35(4), pages 397-419.
    5. Kato, Hideaki Kiyoshi & Loewenstein, Uri & Tsay, Wenyuh, 2002. "Dividend policy, cash flow, and investment in Japan," Pacific-Basin Finance Journal, Elsevier, vol. 10(4), pages 443-473, September.
    6. Francis, Bill & Hasan, Iftekhar & Song, Liang & Waisman, Maya, 2013. "Corporate governance and investment-cash flow sensitivity: Evidence from emerging markets," Emerging Markets Review, Elsevier, vol. 15(C), pages 57-71.
    7. Cynthia A. Utama & Sidharta Utama, 2016. "Interaction between Incentive to Expropriate and Investment Opportunities as a Determinant of Overinvestment Problem in Indonesia," Asian Academy of Management Journal of Accounting and Finance (AAMJAF), Penerbit Universiti Sains Malaysia, vol. 12(1), pages 73-99.
    8. OUATTARA, Aboudou, 2017. "Politique de distribution de dividendes des sociétés cotées sur les marchés en développement : Cas de la BRVM
      [Dividend policy of companies listed in developing financial markets: Case study of the
      ," MPRA Paper 79839, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    9. repec:bla:acctfi:v:57:y:2017:i:1:p:165-197 is not listed on IDEAS
    10. Degryse, Hans & de Jong, Abe, 2006. "Investment and internal finance: Asymmetric information or managerial discretion?," International Journal of Industrial Organization, Elsevier, vol. 24(1), pages 125-147, January.
    11. Gugler, Klaus & Mueller, Dennis C. & Weichselbaumer, Michael, 2012. "The determinants of merger waves: An international perspective," International Journal of Industrial Organization, Elsevier, vol. 30(1), pages 1-15.
    12. Pindado, Julio & Rodrigues, Luis & de la Torre, Chabela, 2008. "How do insolvency codes affect a firm's investment?," International Review of Law and Economics, Elsevier, vol. 28(4), pages 227-238, December.
    13. Colombo, Massimo G. & Croce, Annalisa & Guerini, Massimiliano, 2013. "The effect of public subsidies on firms’ investment–cash flow sensitivity: Transient or persistent?," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 42(9), pages 1605-1623.
    14. Degryse, H.A. & de Jong, A., 2000. "Investment Spending in the Netherlands : The Impact of Liquidity and Corporate Governance," Discussion Paper 2000-24, Tilburg University, Center for Economic Research.
    15. Deshmukh, Sanjay & Vogt, Stephen C., 2005. "Investment, cash flow, and corporate hedging," Journal of Corporate Finance, Elsevier, vol. 11(4), pages 628-644, September.
    16. George, R. & Kabir, M.R. & Qian, J., 2005. "Is Investment-Cash flow Sensitivity a Good Measure of Financing Constraints? New Evidence from Indian Business Group Firms," Discussion Paper 2005-49, Tilburg University, Center for Economic Research.
    17. François-Serge Lhabitant & Olivier Tinguely, 2002. "Financial Constraints and Investment: the Swiss Case," Swiss Journal of Economics and Statistics (SJES), Swiss Society of Economics and Statistics (SSES), vol. 138(II), pages 137-163, June.
    18. Elias Dedoussis & Afroditi Papadaki, 2010. "Investment spending and corporate governance: Evidence from the ASE listed firms," Managerial Finance, Emerald Group Publishing, vol. 36(3), pages 201-224, February.
    19. Annalisa Croce & José Martí, 2017. "Financial constraints in family firms and the role of venture capital," Economia e Politica Industriale: Journal of Industrial and Business Economics, Springer;Associazione Amici di Economia e Politica Industriale, vol. 44(1), pages 119-144, March.
    20. Kadapakkam, Palani-Rajan & Kumar, P. C. & Riddick, Leigh A., 1998. "The impact of cash flows and firm size on investment: The international evidence," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 22(3), pages 293-320, March.
    21. repec:eco:journ1:2018-02-20 is not listed on IDEAS
    22. Viviana Fernandez, 2011. "Spatial linkages in international financial markets," Quantitative Finance, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 11(2), pages 237-245.
    23. Fabio Bertoni & María Ferrer & José Martí, 2013. "The different roles played by venture capital and private equity investors on the investment activity of their portfolio firms," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 40(3), pages 607-633, April.
    24. Block, Joern H., 2012. "R&D investments in family and founder firms: An agency perspective," Journal of Business Venturing, Elsevier, vol. 27(2), pages 248-265.

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