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Resolution of Financial Distress : Debt Restructurings via Chapter 11, Prepackaged Bankruptcies, and Workouts


  • Sris Chatterjee
  • Upinder S. Dhillon
  • Gabriel G. Ramirez


This paper examines empirically a comprehensive sample of firms undertaking Chapter 11 reorganizations, prepackaged bankruptcies, and workouts. We provide evidence that the restructuring decision depends on the degree of the firm's leverage, the severity of its liquidity crisis, the extent of creditor's coordination, and the magnitude of its economic distress. The results complement theoretical models of debt restructuring choices. We find that economically viable firms prefer workouts. Further, prepackaged bankruptcies are used by firms that are economically viable but face immediate liquidity problems.

Suggested Citation

  • Sris Chatterjee & Upinder S. Dhillon & Gabriel G. Ramirez, 1996. "Resolution of Financial Distress : Debt Restructurings via Chapter 11, Prepackaged Bankruptcies, and Workouts," Financial Management, Financial Management Association, vol. 25(1), Spring.
  • Handle: RePEc:fma:fmanag:chatterjee96

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    Cited by:

    1. Christine Pochet, 2002. "Institutional Complementarities within Corporate Governance Systems: A Comparative Study of Bankruptcy Rules," Journal of Management & Governance, Springer;Accademia Italiana di Economia Aziendale (AIDEA), vol. 6(4), pages 343-381, December.
    2. Kahl, Matthias, 2001. "Financial Distress as a Selection Mechanism: Evidence from the United States," University of California at Los Angeles, Anderson Graduate School of Management qt0dg192r9, Anderson Graduate School of Management, UCLA.
    3. Berndt, Antje & Jarrow, Robert A. & Kang, ChoongOh, 2007. "Restructuring risk in credit default swaps: An empirical analysis," Stochastic Processes and their Applications, Elsevier, vol. 117(11), pages 1724-1749, November.
    4. Carapeto, Maria, 2007. "An examination of multiple plans in Chapter 11 reorganizations," Journal of Financial Stability, Elsevier, vol. 3(3), pages 279-293, October.
    5. Nishihara, Michi & Shibata, Takashi, 2016. "Asset sale, debt restructuring, and liquidation," Journal of Economic Dynamics and Control, Elsevier, vol. 67(C), pages 73-92.
    6. Helwege, Jean & Packer, Frank, 2003. "Determinants of the choice of bankruptcy procedure in Japan," Journal of Financial Intermediation, Elsevier, vol. 12(1), pages 96-120, January.
    7. Gary Cook & Keith Pond, 2006. "Explaining the choice between alternative insolvency regimes for troubled companies in the UK and Sweden," European Journal of Law and Economics, Springer, vol. 22(1), pages 21-47, July.
    8. Kenneth Daniels & Gabriel Ramirez, 2008. "Information, Credit Risk, Lender Specialization and Loan Pricing: Evidence from the DIP Financing Market," Journal of Financial Services Research, Springer;Western Finance Association, vol. 34(1), pages 35-59, August.
    9. John Armour, 2006. "Should we redistribute in insolvency," Working Papers wp319, Centre for Business Research, University of Cambridge.
    10. John Armour & B.R. Cheffins & D.A. Skeel Jr., 2002. "Corporate Ownership Structure and the Evolution of Bankruptcy Law in the US and UK," Working Papers wp226, Centre for Business Research, University of Cambridge.
    11. Riikka Sievänen & Hannu Rita & Bert Scholtens, 2013. "The Drivers of Responsible Investment: The Case of European Pension Funds," Journal of Business Ethics, Springer, vol. 117(1), pages 137-151, September.
    12. Pascal François & Alon Raviv, 2014. "Heterogeneous Beliefs and the Choice Between Private Restructuring and Formal Bankruptcy," Cahiers de recherche 1401, CIRPEE.
    13. Ying Yan, 1997. "Credit rationing, bankruptcy cost, and the optimal debt contract for small business," Working Paper 9702, Federal Reserve Bank of Cleveland.
    14. Dong-Kyoon Kim & Chuck Kwok, 2009. "The influence of managerial incentives on the resolution of financial distress," Review of Quantitative Finance and Accounting, Springer, vol. 32(1), pages 61-83, January.
    15. Andras Danis, 2013. "Do Empty Creditors Matter? Evidence from Distressed Exchange Offers," IEHAS Discussion Papers 1334, Institute of Economics, Centre for Economic and Regional Studies, Hungarian Academy of Sciences.
    16. Richard A. AJAYI & Luminita ENACHE & Seyed MEHDIAN, 2012. "Resolution Of Financial Distress: A Comparative Analysis Of U.S., U.K., And Japanese Firms," Review of Economic and Business Studies, Alexandru Ioan Cuza University, Faculty of Economics and Business Administration, issue 10, pages 147-163, December.
    17. Chi, Li-Chiu, 2009. "How have banks fared following a borrower's financial distress?," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 26(2), pages 480-488, March.
    18. Abínzano, Isabel & Seco, Luis & Escobar, Marcos & Olivares, Pablo, 2009. "Single and Double Black-Cox: Two approaches for modelling debt restructuring," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 26(5), pages 910-917, September.
    19. Ying Yan, 1996. "Credit Rationing, Bankruptcy Cost, and Optimal Debt Contract for Small Business," Finance 9612003, EconWPA.
    20. John, Kose & Mateti, Ravi S. & Vasudevan, Gopala, 2013. "Resolution of financial distress: A theory of the choice between Chapter 11 and workouts," Journal of Financial Stability, Elsevier, vol. 9(2), pages 196-209.
    21. Dong-Kyoon Kim, 2006. "Do self-serving managers choose Chapter 11 filing over out-of-court restructuring?," Journal of Economics and Finance, Springer;Academy of Economics and Finance, vol. 30(1), pages 105-114, March.

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