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Labor market globalization in the recession and beyond


  • W. Michael Cox
  • Richard Alm
  • Justyna Dymerska


Two types of immigration, physical (immigration that brings the workers to the work) and virtual (immigration that moves the work rather than the workers, involving the long-distance delivery of services), have contributed to globalization of the labor force over the past quarter century. In the past two years, recession has spread to most parts of the world, slowing or even reversing globalization's momentum. The slowdown has taken a toll on both physical and virtual immigration. In recovery, the long-term factors supporting cross-border integration of trade, finance and labor are likely to reemerge, although it may take time to fully restore globalization's momentum. The outlook could change if hard times linger and countries succumb to protectionist temptations, setting off a destructive process of deglobalization.

Suggested Citation

  • W. Michael Cox & Richard Alm & Justyna Dymerska, 2009. "Labor market globalization in the recession and beyond," Economic Letter, Federal Reserve Bank of Dallas, vol. 4(dec).
  • Handle: RePEc:fip:feddel:y:2009:i:dec:n:v.4no.10

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