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Modelling the US$/A$ Exchange Rate Using Cointegration Techniques


  • Costas Karfakis
  • Anthony Phipps


Recent evidence indicates that Australia's real effective exchange rate, its terms of trade and a long-term real interest rate differential form a cointegrating relationship. This paper uses this evidence to analyse the nominal US$/A$ exchange rate. The US$/A$ rate is found to be cointegrated with the terms of trade and relative price levels. However, interest rate differentials appear to add nothing to this long-run relationship. Estimated error correction models suggest that there is a substantial two-way relationship between nominal exchange rate changes and changes in the terms of trade. This evidence indicates that the small, open-economy assumption of exogenously given terms of trade may be inappropriate when modelling movements in the US$/A$ exchange rate. Changes in a long-run interest rate differential, possibly reflecting differences in expected inflation rates, contribute significantly to an explanation of short-run changes in the nominal exchange rate.

Suggested Citation

  • Costas Karfakis & Anthony Phipps, 1998. "Modelling the US$/A$ Exchange Rate Using Cointegration Techniques," European Research Studies Journal, European Research Studies Journal, vol. 0(1), pages 91-108, January -.
  • Handle: RePEc:ers:journl:v:i:y:1998:i:1:p:91-108

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    Exchange Rates; Terms of Trade; Interest Parity; Purchasing Power Parity; Cointegration;
    All these keywords.

    JEL classification:

    • F31 - International Economics - - International Finance - - - Foreign Exchange
    • F41 - International Economics - - Macroeconomic Aspects of International Trade and Finance - - - Open Economy Macroeconomics


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