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Banking supervision and nonperforming loans: a cross-country analysis

Author

Listed:
  • Abdelkader Boudriga
  • Neila Boulila Taktak
  • Sana Jellouli

Abstract

Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to empirically analyse the cross-countries determinants of nonperforming loans (NPLs), the potential impact of supervisory devices, and institutional environment on credit risk exposure. Design/methodology/approach - The paper employs aggregate banking, financial, economic, and legal environment data for a panel of 59 countries over the period 2002-2006. It develops a comprehensive model to explain differences in the level of NPLs between countries. To assess the role of regulatory supervision on credit risk, the paper uses several interactions between institutional features and regulatory devices. Findings - The empirical results indicate that higher capital adequacy ratio (CAR) and prudent provisioning policy seems to reduce the level of problem loans. The paper also reports a desirable impact of private ownership, foreign participation, and bank concentration. However, the findings do not support the view that market discipline leads to better economic outcomes. All regulatory devices do not significantly reduce problem loans for countries with weak institutions, corrupt environment, and little democracy. Finally, the paper shows that the effective way to reduce bad loans is through strengthening the legal system and increasing transparency and democracy, rather than focusing on regulatory and supervisory issues. Practical implications - First, higher CARs results in less credit exposures. Second, international regulators should continue their efforts to enhance financial development. The results suggest that foreign participation plays an important role in reducing credit exposure of financial institutions. However, in developed countries, foreign entry led to more problem loans. Finally, to reduce credit risk exposure in countries with weak institutions, the effective way to do it is through enhancing the legal system, strengthening institutions, and increasing transparency and democracy. Originality/value - The paper contributes to the literature on banking regulation and supervision. It examines aggregated data which best reflect the level of NPL of the banks in a country as opposed to individual data included in databases that suffer from the problem of representativeness. It considers the impact of regulatory variables after controlling for bank industry factors that alter primarily problem loans. Finally, the paper examines the effectiveness of regulation through the inclusion of institutional factors.

Suggested Citation

  • Abdelkader Boudriga & Neila Boulila Taktak & Sana Jellouli, 2009. "Banking supervision and nonperforming loans: a cross-country analysis," Journal of Financial Economic Policy, Emerald Group Publishing, vol. 1(4), pages 286-318, November.
  • Handle: RePEc:eme:jfeppp:v:1:y:2009:i:4:p:286-318
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    Citations

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    Cited by:

    1. Louhichi, Awatef & Boujelbene, Younes, 2016. "Credit risk, managerial behaviour and macroeconomic equilibrium within dual banking systems: Interest-free vs. interest-based banking industries," Research in International Business and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 38(C), pages 104-121.
    2. Vasiliki Makri, 2016. "Towards an Investigation of Credit Risk Determinants in Eurozone Countries," Journal of Accounting and Management Information Systems, Faculty of Accounting and Management Information Systems, The Bucharest University of Economic Studies, vol. 15(1), pages 27-57, March.
    3. Ozili, Peterson K, 2017. "Non-performing loans and Financial Development: New Evidence," MPRA Paper 75964, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    4. Vasiliki MAKRI & Konstantinos PAPADATOS, 2016. "Determinants Of Loan Quality: Lessons From Greek Cooperative Banks," Review of Economic and Business Studies, Alexandru Ioan Cuza University, Faculty of Economics and Business Administration, issue 17, pages 115-140, June.
    5. Konstantakis, Konstantinos N. & Michaelides, Panayotis G. & Vouldis, Angelos T., 2016. "Non performing loans (NPLs) in a crisis economy: Long-run equilibrium analysis with a real time VEC model for Greece (2001–2015)," Physica A: Statistical Mechanics and its Applications, Elsevier, vol. 451(C), pages 149-161.
    6. Vasiliki Makri & Athanasios Tsagkanos & Athanasios Bellas, 2014. "Determinants of Non-Performing Loans: The Case of Eurozone," Panoeconomicus, Savez ekonomista Vojvodine, Novi Sad, Serbia, vol. 61(2), pages 193-206, March.
    7. Ghosh, Amit, 2015. "Banking-industry specific and regional economic determinants of non-performing loans: Evidence from US states," Journal of Financial Stability, Elsevier, vol. 20(C), pages 93-104.
    8. repec:eee:riibaf:v:42:y:2017:i:c:p:645-657 is not listed on IDEAS
    9. Vasiliki Makri & Konstantinos Papadatos, 2014. "How accounting information and macroeconomic environment determine credit risk? Evidence from Greece," International Journal of Business and Economic Sciences Applied Research (IJBESAR), Eastern Macedonia and Thrace Institute of Technology (EMATTECH), Kavala, Greece, vol. 7(1), pages 129-143, April.
    10. repec:ibn:ijefaa:v:9:y:2017:i:7:p:60-68 is not listed on IDEAS
    11. Us, Vuslat, 2017. "Dynamics of non-performing loans in the Turkish banking sector by an ownership breakdown: The impact of the global crisis," Finance Research Letters, Elsevier, vol. 20(C), pages 109-117.
    12. Ismail Tijjani Idris & Sabri Nayan, 2016. "The Joint Effects of Oil Price Volatility and Environmental Risks on Non-performing Loans: Evidence from Panel Data of Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries," International Journal of Energy Economics and Policy, Econjournals, vol. 6(3), pages 522-528.
    13. Syed Faizan Iftikhar, 2015. "Financial Reforms and Financial Fragility: A Panel Data Analysis," International Journal of Financial Studies, MDPI, Open Access Journal, vol. 3(2), pages 1-18, April.
    14. Vasiliki Makri, 2015. "What Triggers Loan Losses? An Empirical Investigation of Greek Financial Sector," SPOUDAI Journal of Economics and Business, SPOUDAI Journal of Economics and Business, University of Piraeus, vol. 65(3-4), pages 119-143, july-Dece.
    15. repec:spt:fininv:v:6:y:2017:i:4:f:6_4_1 is not listed on IDEAS
    16. M. Brei & L. Jacolin & A. Noah, 2018. "Credit risk and bank competition in Sub-Saharan Africa," Working papers 664, Banque de France.
    17. Triki, Thouraya & Kouki, Imen & Dhaou, Mouna Ben & Calice, Pietro, 2017. "Bank regulation and efficiency: What works for Africa?," Research in International Business and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 39(PA), pages 183-205.

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    Keywords

    Banking; Loans; Credit; Risk assessment; Regulation;

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