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Enterprise risk management and firm performance: A contingency perspective


  • Gordon, Lawrence A.
  • Loeb, Martin P.
  • Tseng, Chih-Yang


In recent years, a paradigm shift has occurred regarding the way organizations view risk management. Instead of looking at risk management from a silo-based perspective, the trend is to take a holistic view of risk management. This holistic approach toward managing an organization's risk is commonly referred to as enterprise risk management (ERM). Indeed, there is growing support for the general argument that organizations will improve their performance by employing the ERM concept. The basic argument presented in this paper is that the relation between ERM and firm performance is contingent upon the appropriate match between ERM and the following five factors affecting a firm: environmental uncertainty, industry competition, firm size, firm complexity, and board of directors' monitoring. Based on a sample of 112 US firms that disclose the implementation of their ERM activities within their 10Ks and 10Qs filed with the US Securities and Exchange Commission, empirical evidence confirms the above basic argument. The implication of these findings is that firms should consider the implementation of an ERM system in conjunction with contextual variables surrounding the firm.

Suggested Citation

  • Gordon, Lawrence A. & Loeb, Martin P. & Tseng, Chih-Yang, 2009. "Enterprise risk management and firm performance: A contingency perspective," Journal of Accounting and Public Policy, Elsevier, vol. 28(4), pages 301-327, July.
  • Handle: RePEc:eee:jappol:v:28:y:2009:i:4:p:301-327

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    References listed on IDEAS

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    Cited by:

    1. Madhu Acharyya & Chris Brady, 2014. "Designing an Enterprise Risk Management Curriculum for Business Studies: Insights From a Pilot Program," Risk Management and Insurance Review, American Risk and Insurance Association, vol. 17(1), pages 113-136, March.
    2. repec:spr:reaccs:v:22:y:2017:i:3:d:10.1007_s11142-017-9396-0 is not listed on IDEAS
    3. Nawrocki, Tomasz Leszek & Jonek-Kowalska, Izabela, 2016. "Assessing operational risk in coal mining enterprises – Internal, industrial and international perspectives," Resources Policy, Elsevier, vol. 48(C), pages 50-67.
    4. repec:bla:acctfi:v:56:y:2016:i:4:p:985-1015 is not listed on IDEAS
    5. Barakat, Ahmed & Chernobai, Anna & Wahrenburg, Mark, 2014. "Information asymmetry around operational risk announcements," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 48(C), pages 152-179.
    6. Blome, Constantin & Schoenherr, Tobias, 2011. "Supply chain risk management in financial crises--A multiple case-study approach," International Journal of Production Economics, Elsevier, vol. 134(1), pages 43-57, November.
    7. Sergio Beretta & Saverio Bozzolan, 2013. "Il governo della performance dei processi di business: dai Key Performance Indicator ai Key Risk Indicator," MANAGEMENT CONTROL, FrancoAngeli Editore, vol. 2013(2), pages 9-37.
    8. repec:spr:annopr:v:237:y:2016:i:1:d:10.1007_s10479-015-1789-5 is not listed on IDEAS
    9. repec:pal:jintbs:v:48:y:2017:i:8:d:10.1057_s41267-017-0110-z is not listed on IDEAS
    10. Giorgio Stefano Bertinetti & Elisa Cavezzali & Gloria Gardenal, 2013. "The effect of the enterprise risk management implementation on the firm value of European companies," Working Papers 10, Department of Management, Università Ca' Foscari Venezia.
    11. Andrew F. Whitman, 2015. "Is ERM Legally Required? Yes for Financial and Governmental Institutions, No for Private Enterprises," Risk Management and Insurance Review, American Risk and Insurance Association, vol. 18(2), pages 161-197, September.
    12. Volker Stein & Arnd Wiedemann, 2016. "Risk governance: conceptualization, tasks, and research agenda," Journal of Business Economics, Springer, vol. 86(8), pages 813-836, November.
    13. Ishaya John Dabari & Siti Zabedah Saidin, 2015. "Determinants Influencing the Implementation of Enterprise Risk Management in the Nigerian Banking Sector," International Journal of Asian Social Science, Asian Economic and Social Society, vol. 5(12), pages 740-754, December.
    14. repec:ris:utmsje:0216 is not listed on IDEAS
    15. Elisabetta Mafrolla & Felice Matozza, 2014. "Risk management and firm size: a survey of Italian private companies," MANAGEMENT CONTROL, FrancoAngeli Editore, vol. 2014(3), pages 87-108.
    16. Ai Ping Teoh & Kaih Yeang Lee & Rajendran Muthuveloo, 2017. "The Impact of Enterprise Risk Management, Strategic Agility, and Quality of Internal Audit Function on Firm Performance," International Review of Management and Marketing, Econjournals, vol. 7(1), pages 222-229.
    17. Nadine Gatzert & Michael Martin, 2015. "Determinants and Value of Enterprise Risk Management: Empirical Evidence From the Literature," Risk Management and Insurance Review, American Risk and Insurance Association, vol. 18(1), pages 29-53, March.
    18. repec:zag:zirebs:v:20:y:2017:i:sci:p:25-39 is not listed on IDEAS


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