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Using CAD scales for cross-cultural marketing


  • Jacobs, Laurence
  • Worthley, Reginald


CAD (compliant, aggressive, detached) scales have been used in marketing research for many years, however, they have not been widely utilized in cross-cultural studies. International marketers can gain additional insight into market differences with this technique. CAD scales share cross-cultural application problems with all other attitudinal tests. While this methodology is far from perfect, it does provide the international marketer with an additional tool to enhance the understanding of cultural differences. To illustrate how this technique can be used, a study was performed. University students in China, Japan, and the United States were surveyed. The results of our comparisons suggest that Chinese students were higher on all three scales while the United States students tended to be more compliant than the Japanese sample, although all three samples were compliant. The United States sample was roughly equal to the Japanese in aggressiveness and detachment.

Suggested Citation

  • Jacobs, Laurence & Worthley, Reginald, 1994. "Using CAD scales for cross-cultural marketing," International Business Review, Elsevier, vol. 3(3), pages 263-274, September.
  • Handle: RePEc:eee:iburev:v:3:y:1994:i:3:p:263-274

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Erin Anderson & Hubert Gatignon, 1986. "Modes of Foreign Entry: A Transaction Cost Analysis and Propositions," Journal of International Business Studies, Palgrave Macmillan;Academy of International Business, vol. 17(3), pages 1-26, September.
    2. Norman McGuinness & Nigel Campbell & James Leontiades, 1991. "Selling Machinery to China: Chinese Perceptions of Strategies and Relationships," Journal of International Business Studies, Palgrave Macmillan;Academy of International Business, vol. 22(2), pages 187-207, June.
    3. Bansard, Denis & Cova, Bernard & Salle, Robert, 1993. "Project marketing: Beyond competitive bidding strategies," International Business Review, Elsevier, vol. 2(2), pages 125-141.
    4. Alston, Jon P., 1989. "Wa, Guanxi, and Inhwa: Managerial principles in Japan, China, and Korea," Business Horizons, Elsevier, vol. 32(2), pages 26-31.
    5. Greve, Arent, 1995. "Networks and entrepreneurship -- an analysis of social relations, occupational background, and use of contacts during the establishment process," Scandinavian Journal of Management, Elsevier, vol. 11(1), pages 1-24, March.
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