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Propensity score matching without conditional independence assumption--with an application to the gender wage gap in the United Kingdom

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  • Markus Frölich

Abstract

Propensity score matching is frequently used for estimating average treatment effects. Its applicability, however, is not confined to treatment evaluation. In this paper, it is shown that propensity score matching does not hinge on a selection on observables assumption and can be used to estimate not only adjusted means but also their distributions, even with non-i.i.d. sampling. Propensity score matching is used to analyze the gender wage gap among graduates in the UK. It is found that subject of degree contributes substantially to explaining the gender wage gap, particularly at higher quantiles of the wage distribution. Copyright Royal Economic Society 2007

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  • Markus Frölich, 2007. "Propensity score matching without conditional independence assumption--with an application to the gender wage gap in the United Kingdom," Econometrics Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 10(2), pages 359-407, July.
  • Handle: RePEc:ect:emjrnl:v:10:y:2007:i:2:p:359-407
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    Cited by:

    1. Justin Leroux & John Rizzo & Robin Sickles, 2012. "The role of self-reporting bias in health, mental health and labor force participation: a descriptive analysis," Empirical Economics, Springer, vol. 43(2), pages 525-536, October.
    2. Boris Hirsch & Marion König & Joachim Möller, 2013. "Is There a Gap in the Gap? Regional Differences in the Gender Pay Gap," Scottish Journal of Political Economy, Scottish Economic Society, vol. 60(4), pages 412-439, September.
    3. Annabelle Krause & Ulf Rinne & Simone Schüller, 2015. "Kick It Like Özil? Decomposing the Native-Migrant Education Gap," International Migration Review, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 49(3), pages 757-789, September.
    4. Andrea Albanese & Bart Cockx & Yannick Thuy, 2015. "Working Time Reductions At The End Of The Career. Do They Prolong The Time Spent In Employment?," Working Papers of Faculty of Economics and Business Administration, Ghent University, Belgium 15/916, Ghent University, Faculty of Economics and Business Administration.
    5. Platt, Jonathan & Prins, Seth & Bates, Lisa & Keyes, Katherine, 2016. "Unequal depression for equal work? How the wage gap explains gendered disparities in mood disorders," Social Science & Medicine, Elsevier, vol. 149(C), pages 1-8.
    6. Caliendo, Marco & Lee, Wang-Sheng, 2013. "Fat chance! Obesity and the transition from unemployment to employment," Economics & Human Biology, Elsevier, vol. 11(2), pages 121-133.
    7. Marco Caliendo & Jens Hogenacker & Steffen Künn & Frank Wießner, 2015. "Subsidized start-ups out of unemployment: a comparison to regular business start-ups," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 45(1), pages 165-190, June.
    8. Bourdon, Jean & Frölich, Markus & Michaelowa, Katharina, 2007. "Teacher Shortages, Teacher Contracts and their Impact on Education in Africa," IZA Discussion Papers 2844, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
    9. Caliendo, Marco & Gielen, Anne C. & Mahlstedt, Robert, 2015. "Home-ownership, unemployed’s job search behavior and post-unemployment outcomes," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 137(C), pages 218-221.
    10. Andrea ALBANESE & Bart COCKX, 2015. "Permanent Wage Cost Subsidies for Older Workers. An Effective Tool for Increasing Working Time and Postponing Early Retirement?," Discussion Papers (IRES - Institut de Recherches Economiques et Sociales) 2015006, Université catholique de Louvain, Institut de Recherches Economiques et Sociales (IRES).
    11. Mizala, Alejandra & Romaguera, Pilar & Gallegos, Sebastián, 2011. "Public–private wage gap in Latin America (1992–2007): A matching approach," Labour Economics, Elsevier, vol. 18(S1), pages 115-131.
    12. Dusan Paredes, 2012. "The impact of the occupations and economic activities on the gender wage gap using a counterfactual framework," Documentos de Trabajo en Economia y Ciencia Regional 22, Universidad Catolica del Norte, Chile, Department of Economics, revised Apr 2012.
    13. Alejandra Mizala & Pilar Romaguera & Sebastian Gallegos, 2010. "Public-Private Wage Gap In Latin America (1999-2007): A Matching Approach," Documentos de Trabajo 268, Centro de Economía Aplicada, Universidad de Chile.
    14. Kassie, Menale & Ndiritu, Simon Wagura & Shiferaw, Bekele A., 2012. "Determinants of Food Security in Kenya, a Gender Perspective," 86th Annual Conference, April 16-18, 2012, Warwick University, Coventry, UK 135124, Agricultural Economics Society.
    15. Sloczynski, Tymon, 2013. "Population Average Gender Effects," IZA Discussion Papers 7315, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
    16. Dusan Paredes, 2012. "Does the gender wage gap exist among male and female workers with similar human capital? A Coarsened Exact Matching for Chile between 1992 and 2009," Documentos de Trabajo en Economia y Ciencia Regional 19, Universidad Catolica del Norte, Chile, Department of Economics, revised Apr 2012.

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