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Efficiency in Repeated Games Revisited: The Role of Private Strategies

  • Michihiro Kandori
  • Ichiro Obara

Most theoretical or applied research on repeated games with imperfect monitoring has focused on public strategies: strategies that depend solely on the history of publicly observable signals. This paper sheds light on the role of private strategies: strategies that depend not only on public signals, but also on players' own actions in the past. Our main finding is that players can sometimes make better use of information by using private strategies and that efficiency in repeated games can be improved. Our equilibrium private strategy for repeated prisoners' dilemma games consists of two states and has the property that each player's optimal strategy is independent of the other player's state. Copyright The Econometric Society 2006.

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File URL: http://hdl.handle.net/10.1111/j.1468-0262.2006.00669.x
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Article provided by Econometric Society in its journal Econometrica.

Volume (Year): 74 (2006)
Issue (Month): 2 (03)
Pages: 499-519

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Handle: RePEc:ecm:emetrp:v:74:y:2006:i:2:p:499-519
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  1. Kandori, Michihiro, 2002. "Introduction to Repeated Games with Private Monitoring," Journal of Economic Theory, Elsevier, vol. 102(1), pages 1-15, January.
  2. Edward J Green & Robert H Porter, 1997. "Noncooperative Collusion Under Imperfect Price Information," Levine's Working Paper Archive 1147, David K. Levine.
  3. Jeffrey Ely, 2000. "A Robust Folk Theorem for the Prisoners' Dilemma," Econometric Society World Congress 2000 Contributed Papers 0210, Econometric Society.
  4. Fudenberg, D. & Levine, D.K. & Maskin, E., 1989. "The Folk Theorem With Inperfect Public Information," Working papers 523, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Department of Economics.
  5. Michihiro Kandori & Ichiro Obara, 2006. "Less is more: An Observability Paradox in Repeated Games," Levine's Bibliography 321307000000000342, UCLA Department of Economics.
  6. Ichiro Obara, 2006. "The Full Surplus Extraction Theorem with Hidden Actions," Levine's Bibliography 122247000000001206, UCLA Department of Economics.
  7. George J. Mailath & Stephen Morris, 1999. "Repeated Games with Almost-Public Monitoring," CARESS Working Papres almost-pub, University of Pennsylvania Center for Analytic Research and Economics in the Social Sciences, revised 01 Sep 2000.
  8. Piccione, Michele, 2002. "The Repeated Prisoner's Dilemma with Imperfect Private Monitoring," Journal of Economic Theory, Elsevier, vol. 102(1), pages 70-83, January.
  9. David G. Pearce & Dilip Abreu & Paul R. Milgrom, 1988. "Information and Timing in Repeated Partnerships," Cowles Foundation Discussion Papers 875, Cowles Foundation for Research in Economics, Yale University.
  10. Radner, Roy & Myerson, Roger & Maskin, Eric, 1986. "An Example of a Repeated Partnership Game with Discounting and with Uniformly Inefficient Equilibria," Review of Economic Studies, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 53(1), pages 59-69, January.
  11. George J. Mailath & Steven A. Matthews & Tadashi Sekiguchi, 2001. "Private Strategies in Finitely Repeated Games with Imperfect Public Monitoring," Penn CARESS Working Papers e7304519c6d1562163dbaf181, Penn Economics Department.
  12. Michihiro Kandori, 1999. "Check Your Partners' Behavior by Randomization: New Efficiency Results on Repeated Games with Imperfect Monitoring," CIRJE F-Series CIRJE-F-45, CIRJE, Faculty of Economics, University of Tokyo.
  13. Ichiro Obara, 2000. "Private Strategy and Efficiency: Repeated Partnership Games Revisited," Econometric Society World Congress 2000 Contributed Papers 1449, Econometric Society.
  14. Lehrer, Ehud, 1991. "Internal Correlation in Repeated Games," International Journal of Game Theory, Springer, vol. 19(4), pages 431-56.
  15. Ichiro Obara, . "Endogenous Monitoring," UCLA Economics Online Papers 398, UCLA Department of Economics.
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