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Do Collective Action Clauses Raise Borrowing Costs?

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  • Barry Eichengreen
  • Ashoka Mody

Abstract

We compare launch spreads on emerging-market bonds subject to UK governing law, which typically include collective action clauses, with spreads on bonds subject to US law, which do not. Collective-action clauses reduce the cost of borrowing for more creditworthy issuers, who appear to benefit from the ability to avail themselves of an orderly restructuring process. Less creditworthy issuers, in contrast, pay higher spreads. It appears that for less creditworthy borrowers the advantages of orderly restructuring are offset by the moral hazard and default risk associated with the presence of renegotiation-friendly loan provisions. We draw out the implications for the debate over whether to encourage the wider utilisation of these provisions as part of the effort to strengthen the international financial architecture. Copyright 2004 Royal Economic Society.

Suggested Citation

  • Barry Eichengreen & Ashoka Mody, 2004. "Do Collective Action Clauses Raise Borrowing Costs?," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 114(495), pages 247-264, April.
  • Handle: RePEc:ecj:econjl:v:114:y:2004:i:495:p:247-264
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    Cited by:

    1. Ashoka Mody, 2004. "What is An Emerging Market?," IMF Working Papers 04/177, International Monetary Fund.
    2. Ansgar Belke, 2011. "Reinforcing EU Governance in Times of Crisis: The Commission Proposals and Beyond," Credit and Capital Markets, Credit and Capital Markets, vol. 44(1), pages 1-26.
    3. Diego Saravia, 2013. "Vulnerability, Crises and Debt Maturity: Do IMF Interventions Increase Reliance on Short-Term Debt?," International Finance, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 16(3), pages 311-331, December.
    4. Diego Saravia, 2010. "Vulnerability, Crisis and Debt Maturity: do IMF Interventions Shorten the Length of Borrowing?," Working Papers Central Bank of Chile 600, Central Bank of Chile.
    5. Ghosal, Sayantan & Thampanishvong, Kannika, 2013. "Does strengthening Collective Action Clauses (CACs) help?," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 89(1), pages 68-78.
    6. Barkbu, Bergljot & Eichengreen, Barry & Mody, Ashoka, 2012. "Financial crises and the multilateral response: What the historical record shows," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 88(2), pages 422-435.
    7. Rohan Pitchford & Mark L. J. Wright, 2012. "Holdouts in Sovereign Debt Restructuring: A Theory of Negotiation in a Weak Contractual Environment," Review of Economic Studies, Oxford University Press, vol. 79(2), pages 812-837.
    8. Olivier Jeanne, 2009. "Debt Maturity and the International Financial Architecture," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 99(5), pages 2135-2148, December.
    9. repec:zbw:rwirep:0232 is not listed on IDEAS
    10. Daniel Leigh & Andrea Pescatori & Jaime Guajardo, 2011. "Expansionary Austerity New International Evidence," IMF Working Papers 11/158, International Monetary Fund.
    11. Marc Flandreau & Juan Flores & Norbert Gaillard & Sebastian Nieto-Parra, 2011. "The Changing Role of Global Financial Brands in the Underwriting of Foreign Government Debt (1815-2010)," IHEID Working Papers 15-2011, Economics Section, The Graduate Institute of International Studies.
    12. Gelpern, Anna & Gulati, Mitu, 2013. "The wonder-clause," Journal of Comparative Economics, Elsevier, vol. 41(2), pages 367-385.
    13. Schumacher, Julian & Chamon, Marcos & Trebesch, Christoph, 2015. "Foreign Law Bonds: Can They Reduce Sovereign Borrowing Costs?," Annual Conference 2015 (Muenster): Economic Development - Theory and Policy 113199, Verein für Socialpolitik / German Economic Association.
    14. Nordvig, Jens, 2015. "Legal Risk Premia During the Euro-Crisis: The Role of Credit and Redenomination Risk," Discussion Papers of Business and Economics 10/2015, University of Southern Denmark, Department of Business and Economics.
    15. Christoph Trebesch & Michael G. Papaioannou & Udaibir S Das, 2012. "Sovereign Debt Restructurings 1950-2010; Literature Survey, Data, and Stylized Facts," IMF Working Papers 12/203, International Monetary Fund.
    16. Lee, Jong-Wha & Shin, Kwanho, 2008. "IMF bailouts and moral hazard," Journal of International Money and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 27(5), pages 816-830, September.
    17. Ansgar Belke, 2010. "Reinforcing EU Governance in Times of Crisis: The Commission Proposals and Beyond," Ruhr Economic Papers 0232, Rheinisch-Westfälisches Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung, Ruhr-Universität Bochum, Universität Dortmund, Universität Duisburg-Essen.
    18. Stephen Quinn, 2008. "Securitization of Sovereign Debt: Corporations as a Sovereign Debt Restructuring Mechanism in Britain, 1694-1750," Working Papers 200701, Texas Christian University, Department of Economics.
    19. Wolfgang Eggert & Maximilian Stephan & Janine Temme & Handirk von Ungern-Sternberg, 2015. "Diversification, Risk Aversion and Expectation in a Holdout Scenario," CESifo Working Paper Series 5527, CESifo Group Munich.
    20. Serbini, Bénédicte, 2012. "L’adoption des clauses d’actions collectives dans les obligations souveraines européennes," L'Actualité Economique, Société Canadienne de Science Economique, vol. 88(4), pages 479-497, Décembre.
    21. Ghosal, Sayantan & Thampanishvong, Kannika, 2013. "Does strengthening Collective Action Clauses (CACs) help?," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 89(1), pages 68-78.
    22. Alfredo Bardozzetti & Davide Dottori, 2013. "Collective action clauses: how do they weigh on sovereigns?," Temi di discussione (Economic working papers) 897, Bank of Italy, Economic Research and International Relations Area.
    23. Bardozzetti, Alfredo & Dottori, Davide, 2014. "Collective action clauses: How do they affect sovereign bond yields?," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 92(2), pages 286-303.

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