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The Effects of Cultural Values on Bank Failures around the World


  • Berger, Allen N.
  • Li, Xinming
  • Morris, Charles S.
  • Roman, Raluca A.


We conduct the first broad-based international study on bank-level failures covering 92 countries over 2000–2014, investigating national cultural variables as failure determinants. We find individualism and masculinity are positively associated with bank failure, but they operate through different channels. Managers in individualist countries assume more portfolio risk, while governments in masculine countries allow banks to operate with less liquidity and less often bail out troubled institutions. Findings are robust to accounting for endogeneity, different techniques and measures, and additional controls. Results have implications for prudential policies, including regulation, supervision, and bailout strategies, that may partially mitigate some negative effects of culture.

Suggested Citation

  • Berger, Allen N. & Li, Xinming & Morris, Charles S. & Roman, Raluca A., 2021. "The Effects of Cultural Values on Bank Failures around the World," Journal of Financial and Quantitative Analysis, Cambridge University Press, vol. 56(3), pages 945-993, May.
  • Handle: RePEc:cup:jfinqa:v:56:y:2021:i:3:p:945-993_7

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    Cited by:

    1. Iftekhar Hasan & Krzysztof Jackowicz & Oskar Kowalewski & Łukasz Kozłowski, 2021. "Cultural values of parent bank board members and lending by foreign subsidiaries: The moderating role of personal traits," Working Papers 2021-ACF-09, IESEG School of Management.
    2. Suss, Joel & Bholat, David & Gillespie, Alex & Reader, Tom, 2021. "Organisational culture and bank risk," Bank of England working papers 912, Bank of England.
    3. Duan, Yuejiao & El Ghoul, Sadok & Guedhami, Omrane & Li, Haoran & Li, Xinming, 2021. "Bank systemic risk around COVID-19: A cross-country analysis," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 133(C).
    4. Andries, Alin Marius & Balutel, Daniela, 2022. "The impact of national culture on systemic risk," Economic Systems, Elsevier, vol. 46(2).
    5. Krzysztof Jackowicz & Oskar Kowalewski & Lukasz Kozlowski, 2021. "Foreign bank lending: The role of home country culture during prosperous and crisis periods," Working Papers 2021-ACF-01, IESEG School of Management.
    6. Toh, Moau Yong & Zhang, Yongmin, 2022. "Bank capital and risk adjustment responses to economic uncertainty: Evidence from emerging Southeast Asian economies," Research in International Business and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 60(C).
    7. Adem Baltaci & Raif Cergibozan & Ali Ari, 2022. "Cultural values and the global financial crisis: a missing link?," Eurasian Economic Review, Springer;Eurasia Business and Economics Society, vol. 12(3), pages 507-529, September.
    8. Goodell, John & Li, Mingsheng & Liu, Desheng, 2021. "Price informativeness and state-owned enterprises: Considering their heterogeneity," International Review of Financial Analysis, Elsevier, vol. 76(C).
    9. Mushtaq Hussain Khan & Mohammad Bitar & Amine Tarazi & Arshad Hassan & Ahmad Fraz, 2021. "Corruption and bank risk-taking: The deterring role of Shari'ah supervision," Working Papers hal-03366460, HAL.
    10. Bitar, Mohammad & Tarazi, Amine, 2022. "Individualism, formal institutional environments, and bank capital decisions," Journal of Corporate Finance, Elsevier, vol. 76(C).
    11. Kristóf, Tamás & Virág, Miklós, 2022. "EU-27 bank failure prediction with C5.0 decision trees and deep learning neural networks," Research in International Business and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 61(C).
    12. Zhang, Xiaoqian & Huang, Bin, 2022. "Does bank competition inhibit the formation of zombie firms?," International Review of Economics & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 80(C), pages 1045-1060.
    13. Wang, Rui & Luo, Hang (Robin), 2022. "How does financial inclusion affect bank stability in emerging economies?," Emerging Markets Review, Elsevier, vol. 51(PA).
    14. Alessandra Allini & Raffaela Casciello & Marco Maffei & Martina Prisco, 2022. "The national culture as a determinant of ERM quality: Empirical evidence in the European banking context," MANAGEMENT CONTROL, FrancoAngeli Editore, vol. 2022(1), pages 79-102.

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