IDEAS home Printed from
   My bibliography  Save this article

The Effects of Cultural Values on Bank Failures around the World


  • Berger, Allen N.
  • Li, Xinming
  • Morris, Charles S.
  • Roman, Raluca A.


We conduct the first broad-based international study on bank-level failures covering 92 countries over 2000–2014, investigating national cultural variables as failure determinants. We find individualism and masculinity are positively associated with bank failure, but they operate through different channels. Managers in individualist countries assume more portfolio risk, while governments in masculine countries allow banks to operate with less liquidity and less often bail out troubled institutions. Findings are robust to accounting for endogeneity, different techniques and measures, and additional controls. Results have implications for prudential policies, including regulation, supervision, and bailout strategies, that may partially mitigate some negative effects of culture.

Suggested Citation

  • Berger, Allen N. & Li, Xinming & Morris, Charles S. & Roman, Raluca A., 2021. "The Effects of Cultural Values on Bank Failures around the World," Journal of Financial and Quantitative Analysis, Cambridge University Press, vol. 56(3), pages 945-993, May.
  • Handle: RePEc:cup:jfinqa:v:56:y:2021:i:3:p:945-993_7

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL:
    File Function: link to article abstract page
    Download Restriction: no


    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.

    Cited by:

    1. Somya M. Eljilany & Ibrahim R. Hegazy & Ahmed F. Elbayoumi, 2023. "Risk-Taking in The Banking Sector: Do Cultural Differences Matter?," Journal of Accounting and Management Information Systems, Faculty of Accounting and Management Information Systems, The Bucharest University of Economic Studies, vol. 22(3), pages 464-489, September.
    2. Mushtaq Hussain Khan & Mohammad Bitar & Amine Tarazi & Arshad Hassan & Ahmad Fraz, 2021. "Corruption and bank risk-taking: The deterring role of Shari'ah supervision," Working Papers hal-03366460, HAL.
    3. Kowalewski, Oskar, 2023. "Effect of operating multiple affiliates on the performance of subsidiaries in the same host country," Research in International Business and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 65(C).
    4. Jackowicz, Krzysztof & Kowalewski, Oskar & Kozłowski, Łukasz, 2022. "Foreign bank lending: The role of home country culture during prosperous and crisis periods," Journal of Multinational Financial Management, Elsevier, vol. 66(C).
    5. Hasan, Iftekhar & Jackowicz, Krzysztof & Kowalewski, Oskar & Kozłowski, Łukasz, 2023. "Cultural values of parent bank board members and lending by foreign subsidiaries: The moderating role of personal traits," Journal of International Financial Markets, Institutions and Money, Elsevier, vol. 83(C).
    6. Boubakri, Narjess & Cao, Zhongyu & El Ghoul, Sadok & Guedhami, Omrane & Li, Xinming, 2023. "National culture and bank liquidity creation," Journal of Financial Stability, Elsevier, vol. 64(C).
    7. Bitar, Mohammad & Tarazi, Amine, 2022. "Individualism, formal institutional environments, and bank capital decisions," Journal of Corporate Finance, Elsevier, vol. 76(C).
    8. Andries, Alin Marius & Balutel, Daniela, 2022. "The impact of national culture on systemic risk," Economic Systems, Elsevier, vol. 46(2).
    9. Bermpei, Theodora & Degl’Innocenti, Marta & Kalyvas, Antonios Nikolaos & Zhou, Si, 2023. "Lender individualism and monitoring: Evidence from syndicated loans," Journal of Financial Stability, Elsevier, vol. 66(C).
    10. Kowalewski, Oskar & Pisany, Paweł & Ślązak, Emil, 2022. "Digitalization and data, institutional quality and culture as drivers of technology-based credit providers," Journal of Economics and Business, Elsevier, vol. 121(C).
    11. Suss, Joel & Bholat, David & Gillespie, Alex & Reader, Tom, 2021. "Organisational culture and bank risk," Bank of England working papers 912, Bank of England.
    12. Haifeng Hu & Minjing Qi, 2022. "New Evidence on National Culture and Corporate Financing: Does Institutional Quality Matter?," Sustainability, MDPI, vol. 14(19), pages 1-24, October.
    13. Paolo Esposito & Emanuele Doronzo & Spiridione Lucio Dicorato, 2023. "The financial and green effects of cultural values on mission drifts in European social enterprises," Business Strategy and the Environment, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 32(1), pages 1-29, January.
    14. Goodell, John W. & Kumar, Satish & Lahmar, Oumaima & Pandey, Nitesh, 2023. "A bibliometric analysis of cultural finance," International Review of Financial Analysis, Elsevier, vol. 85(C).
    15. Tran, Dung Viet & Bui, Dien Giau & Nguyen, Cuong & Hoang, Huy Viet, 2023. "Bank liquidity hoarding during the COVID-19 pandemic," Finance Research Letters, Elsevier, vol. 55(PB).
    16. Kristóf, Tamás & Virág, Miklós, 2022. "EU-27 bank failure prediction with C5.0 decision trees and deep learning neural networks," Research in International Business and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 61(C).
    17. Zhang, Xiaoqian & Huang, Bin, 2022. "Does bank competition inhibit the formation of zombie firms?," International Review of Economics & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 80(C), pages 1045-1060.
    18. Duan, Yuejiao & El Ghoul, Sadok & Guedhami, Omrane & Li, Haoran & Li, Xinming, 2021. "Bank systemic risk around COVID-19: A cross-country analysis," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 133(C).
    19. Wang, Rui & Luo, Hang (Robin), 2022. "How does financial inclusion affect bank stability in emerging economies?," Emerging Markets Review, Elsevier, vol. 51(PA).
    20. Toh, Moau Yong & Zhang, Yongmin, 2022. "Bank capital and risk adjustment responses to economic uncertainty: Evidence from emerging Southeast Asian economies," Research in International Business and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 60(C).
    21. Alessandra Allini & Raffaela Casciello & Marco Maffei & Martina Prisco, 2022. "The national culture as a determinant of ERM quality: Empirical evidence in the European banking context," MANAGEMENT CONTROL, FrancoAngeli Editore, vol. 2022(1), pages 79-102.
    22. Duan, Yuejiao & Fan, Xiaoyun & Wang, Yu, 2022. "Economic policy uncertainty and bank systemic risk: A cross-country analysis," Pacific-Basin Finance Journal, Elsevier, vol. 75(C).
    23. Adem Baltaci & Raif Cergibozan & Ali Ari, 2022. "Cultural values and the global financial crisis: a missing link?," Eurasian Economic Review, Springer;Eurasia Business and Economics Society, vol. 12(3), pages 507-529, September.
    24. Goodell, John & Li, Mingsheng & Liu, Desheng, 2021. "Price informativeness and state-owned enterprises: Considering their heterogeneity," International Review of Financial Analysis, Elsevier, vol. 76(C).
    25. Abinzano, Isabel & Martinez, Beatriz & Poletti-Hughes, Jannine, 2023. "Women in power with power: The influence of meaningful board representation on default risk," International Review of Financial Analysis, Elsevier, vol. 89(C).

    More about this item


    Access and download statistics


    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:cup:jfinqa:v:56:y:2021:i:3:p:945-993_7. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    We have no bibliographic references for this item. You can help adding them by using this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: Kirk Stebbing (email available below). General contact details of provider: .

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service. RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.