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Are Bank Loans Special? Evidence on the Post-Announcement Performance of Bank Borrowers

Author

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  • Billett, Matthew T.
  • Flannery, Mark J.
  • Garfinkel, Jon A.

Abstract

Unlike seasoned equity or public debt offerings, bank loan financing elicits a significantly positive announcement return, which has led financial economists to characterize bank loans as “special.” Here, we find that firms announcing bank loans suffer negative abnormal stock returns over the subsequent three years. In the long run, bank loans appear no different from seasoned equity offerings or public debt issues. Our evidence suggests that larger loans (relative to borrower equity) are followed by worse stock performance. We also find that lender protection is negatively related to borrower performance, suggesting the lender is somewhat shielded from the poor performance.

Suggested Citation

  • Billett, Matthew T. & Flannery, Mark J. & Garfinkel, Jon A., 2006. "Are Bank Loans Special? Evidence on the Post-Announcement Performance of Bank Borrowers," Journal of Financial and Quantitative Analysis, Cambridge University Press, vol. 41(04), pages 733-751, December.
  • Handle: RePEc:cup:jfinqa:v:41:y:2006:i:04:p:733-751_00
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    Cited by:

    1. Sherrill Shaffer & Tatyana Sokolyk, 2013. "Bank Loans to Newly Public Firms," Journal of Entrepreneurial Finance, Pepperdine University, Graziadio School of Business and Management, vol. 16(2), pages 33-56, Spring.
    2. Michael J. Cooper & Huseyin Gulen & Michael J. Schill, 2008. "Asset Growth and the Cross‐Section of Stock Returns," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 63(4), pages 1609-1651, August.
    3. Chen, Xuanjuan & Kim, Kenneth A. & Yao, Tong & Yu, Tong, 2010. "On the predictability of Chinese stock returns," Pacific-Basin Finance Journal, Elsevier, vol. 18(4), pages 403-425, September.
    4. Mohammad M Rahaman, 2016. "Chinese import competition and the provisions for external debt financing in the US," Journal of International Business Studies, Palgrave Macmillan;Academy of International Business, vol. 47(8), pages 898-928, October.
    5. Massa, Massimo & Rehman, Zahid, 2008. "Information flows within financial conglomerates: Evidence from the banks-mutual funds relation," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 89(2), pages 288-306, August.
    6. repec:kap:jfsres:v:53:y:2018:i:1:d:10.1007_s10693-016-0243-4 is not listed on IDEAS
    7. repec:eee:corfin:v:46:y:2017:i:c:p:170-185 is not listed on IDEAS
    8. Liu, Yang & Yang, J. Jimmy, 2011. "Private debt, unused credit lines, and seasoned equity offerings," The Quarterly Review of Economics and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 51(4), pages 376-388.
    9. Butler, Alexander W. & Cornaggia, Jess & Grullon, Gustavo & Weston, James P., 2011. "Corporate financing decisions, managerial market timing, and real investment," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 101(3), pages 666-683, September.
    10. Veljko Fotak, 2016. "A Spark from the Public Sector: Co-lending by Government-owned and Private-sector Lenders," BAFFI CAREFIN Working Papers 1624, BAFFI CAREFIN, Centre for Applied Research on International Markets Banking Finance and Regulation, Universita' Bocconi, Milano, Italy.
    11. Billett, Matthew T. & Flannery, Mark J. & Garfinkel, Jon A., 2011. "Frequent issuers' influence on long-run post-issuance returns," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 99(2), pages 349-364, February.
    12. Bouwman, Christa H. S., 2013. "Liquidity: How Banks Create It and How It Should Be Regulated," Working Papers 13-32, University of Pennsylvania, Wharton School, Weiss Center.
    13. Huang, Weihua & Schwienbacher, Armin & Zhao, Shan, 2012. "When bank loans are bad news: Evidence from market reactions to loan announcements under the risk of expropriation," Journal of International Financial Markets, Institutions and Money, Elsevier, vol. 22(2), pages 233-252.
    14. Berndt, Antje & Gupta, Anurag, 2009. "Moral hazard and adverse selection in the originate-to-distribute model of bank credit," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 56(5), pages 725-743, July.
    15. Huang, Yuan & Lam, F.Y. Eric C. & Wei, K.C. John, 2014. "The q-theory explanation for the external financing effect: New evidence," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 49(C), pages 69-81.
    16. repec:eee:ijoais:v:11:y:2010:i:2:p:79-104 is not listed on IDEAS
    17. Lewis, Craig M. & Tan, Yongxian, 2016. "Debt-equity choices, R&D investment and market timing," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 119(3), pages 599-610.
    18. Tumer-Alkan, G., 2008. "Essays on banking," Other publications TiSEM 8d5ec521-4702-4e75-bc79-a, Tilburg University, School of Economics and Management.
    19. repec:eee:corfin:v:48:y:2018:i:c:p:658-679 is not listed on IDEAS
    20. Richardson, Scott & Tuna, Irem & Wysocki, Peter, 2010. "Accounting anomalies and fundamental analysis: A review of recent research advances," Journal of Accounting and Economics, Elsevier, vol. 50(2-3), pages 410-454, December.
    21. Godlewski, Christophe J., 2014. "Bank loans and borrower value during the global financial crisis: Empirical evidence from France," Journal of International Financial Markets, Institutions and Money, Elsevier, vol. 28(C), pages 100-130.
    22. Uday Chandra & Nandkumar (Nandu) Nayar, 2008. "The Information Content of Private Debt Placements," Journal of Business Finance & Accounting, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 35(9-10), pages 1164-1195.
    23. Lipson, Marc L. & Mortal, Sandra & Schill, Michael J., 2012. "On the Scope and Drivers of the Asset Growth Effect," Journal of Financial and Quantitative Analysis, Cambridge University Press, vol. 46(06), pages 1651-1682, February.
    24. Gengnan Chiang, 2016. "Exploring the transitional behavior among value and growth stocks," Review of Quantitative Finance and Accounting, Springer, vol. 47(3), pages 543-563, October.
    25. Maskara, Pankaj K. & Mullineaux, Donald J., 2011. "Information asymmetry and self-selection bias in bank loan announcement studies," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 101(3), pages 684-694, September.

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