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Negotiation and the IPO Offer Price: A Comparison of Integer vs. Non-Integer IPOs

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  • Bradley, Daniel J.
  • Cooney, John W.
  • Jordan, Bradford D.
  • Singh, Ajai K.

Abstract

We investigate the pricing of 4,989 equity IPOs with offer dates between 1981 and 2000. Approximately three-fourths of these IPOs have integer offer prices. Average initial returns for IPOs with integer offer prices are significantly higher (24.5%) than those priced on the fraction of the dollar (8.1%). This result is robust through time and after conditioning for other effects known to influence initial returns. We hypothesize that integer vs. fractional dollar IPOs are the result of negotiations between the issuing firm and underwriter. Under this negotiation hypothesis, the frequency of integer pricing should be an increasing function of the offer price and the degree of uncertainty surrounding the value of the firm. Empirical evidence, supportive of the negotiation hypothesis, is presented.

Suggested Citation

  • Bradley, Daniel J. & Cooney, John W. & Jordan, Bradford D. & Singh, Ajai K., 2004. "Negotiation and the IPO Offer Price: A Comparison of Integer vs. Non-Integer IPOs," Journal of Financial and Quantitative Analysis, Cambridge University Press, vol. 39(03), pages 517-540, September.
  • Handle: RePEc:cup:jfinqa:v:39:y:2004:i:03:p:517-540_00
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    Cited by:

    1. Charoenwong, Charlie & Ding, David K. & Wang, Ping, 2013. "Short sales constraint and SEO pricing," International Review of Financial Analysis, Elsevier, vol. 29(C), pages 107-118.
    2. Hsuan-Chi Chen & Chiuling Lu, 2006. "How Much Do REITs Pay for Their IPOs?," The Journal of Real Estate Finance and Economics, Springer, vol. 33(2), pages 105-125, September.
    3. Fernando, Chitru S. & Gatchev, Vladimir A. & Spindt, Paul A., 2010. "Institutional Ownership, Analyst Following and Share Prices," Working Papers 10-07, University of Pennsylvania, Wharton School, Weiss Center.
    4. Huang, Chia-Wei & Ho, Po-Hsin & Lin, Chih-Yung & Yen, Ju-Fang, 2014. "Firm age, idiosyncratic risk, and long-run SEO underperformance," International Review of Economics & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 34(C), pages 246-266.
    5. Bajo, Emanuele & Chemmanur, Thomas J. & Simonyan, Karen & Tehranian, Hassan, 2016. "Underwriter networks, investor attention, and initial public offerings," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 122(2), pages 376-408.
    6. Jones, Travis L. & Ligon, James A., 2009. "The day of the week effect in IPO initial returns," The Quarterly Review of Economics and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 49(1), pages 110-127, February.
    7. Fernando, Chitru S. & Gatchev, Vladimir A. & Spindt, Paul A., 2012. "Institutional ownership, analyst following, and share prices," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 36(8), pages 2175-2189.
    8. Jeon, Jin Q. & Ligon, James A., 2011. "The role of co-managers in reducing flotation costs: Evidence from seasoned equity offerings," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 35(5), pages 1041-1056, May.
    9. ap Gwilym, Owain & Verousis, Thanos, 2010. "Price clustering and underpricing in the IPO aftermarket," International Review of Financial Analysis, Elsevier, vol. 19(2), pages 89-97, March.
    10. Autore, Don M. & Boulton, Thomas J. & Smart, Scott B. & Zutter, Chad J., 2014. "The impact of institutional quality on initial public offerings," Journal of Economics and Business, Elsevier, vol. 73(C), pages 65-96.
    11. Keloharju, Matti & Hukkanen, Petri, 2014. "Initial Offer Precision and M&A Outcomes," Working Paper Series 1038, Research Institute of Industrial Economics.
    12. Banerjee, Suman & Dai, Lili & Shrestha, Keshab, 2011. "Cross-country IPOs: What explains differences in underpricing?," Journal of Corporate Finance, Elsevier, vol. 17(5), pages 1289-1305.
    13. Steven Dolvin & Mark Pyles, 2009. "REIT IPOs and the Cost of Going Public," The Journal of Real Estate Finance and Economics, Springer, vol. 39(1), pages 92-106, July.
    14. Jeon, Jin Q. & Lee, Cheolwoo, 2015. "A new measure for heated negotiation in the IPO syndicate," The North American Journal of Economics and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 33(C), pages 278-304.
    15. Chen, Hsuan-Chi & Fauver, Larry & Yang, Pei-Ching, 2009. "What do investment banks charge to underwrite American Depositary Receipts?," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 33(4), pages 609-618, April.
    16. repec:pal:jintbs:v:48:y:2017:i:6:d:10.1057_s41267-016-0054-8 is not listed on IDEAS
    17. Travis L. Jones & Mushfiq us Swaleheen, 2010. "Endogenous examination of underwriter reputation and IPO returns," Managerial Finance, Emerald Group Publishing, vol. 36(4), pages 284-293, March.
    18. Alavi, Arash & Pham, Peter Kien & Pham, Toan My, 2008. "Pre-IPO ownership structure and its impact on the IPO process," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 32(11), pages 2361-2375, November.

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