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Determinants of Hedging and Risk Premia in Commodity Futures Markets

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  • Hirshleifer, David

Abstract

This paper examines the determinants of commodity futures hedging and of risk premia arising from covariation of the futures price with stock market returns, and with the revenues of producers. Owing to supply shocks that stochastically redistribute real wealth (surplus) between producers and consumers, and to limited participation in the futures market, the total risk premium in the model is not proportional to the contract's covariance with aggregate consumption. Stock market variability interacts with the incentive to hedge, causing the producer hedging component of the risk premium to increase (decrease) with income elasticity, for a normal (inferior) good. Production costs that depend on output raise the premium. We argue that output and demand shocks will typically be positively correlated, raising the premium. High supply elasticity reduces the absolute heding premium by reducing the variability of spot price and revenue.

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  • Hirshleifer, David, 1989. "Determinants of Hedging and Risk Premia in Commodity Futures Markets," Journal of Financial and Quantitative Analysis, Cambridge University Press, vol. 24(03), pages 313-331, September.
  • Handle: RePEc:cup:jfinqa:v:24:y:1989:i:03:p:313-331_01
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    Cited by:

    1. Bassam Fattouh, Lutz Kilian, and Lavan Mahadeva, 2013. "The Role of Speculation in Oil Markets: What Have We Learned So Far?," The Energy Journal, International Association for Energy Economics, vol. 0(Number 3).
    2. Erkko Etula, 2013. "Broker-Dealer Risk Appetite and Commodity Returns," Journal of Financial Econometrics, Society for Financial Econometrics, vol. 11(3), pages 486-521, June.
    3. van den Goorbergh, R.W.J. & de Roon, F.A. & Werker, B.J.M., 2003. "Economic Hedging Portfolios," Discussion Paper 2003-102, Tilburg University, Center for Economic Research.
    4. de Roon, F.A. & Nijman, T.E. & Werker, B.J.M., 1999. "Currency Hedging for International Stock Portfolios : A General Approach," Discussion Paper 1999-123, Tilburg University, Center for Economic Research.
    5. Brunetti, Celso & Büyükşahin, Bahattin & Harris, Jeffrey H., 2016. "Speculators, Prices, and Market Volatility," Journal of Financial and Quantitative Analysis, Cambridge University Press, vol. 51(05), pages 1545-1574, October.
    6. Adam, Tim R. & Fernando, Chitru S., 2006. "Hedging, speculation, and shareholder value," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 81(2), pages 283-309, August.
    7. Daskalaki, Charoula & Kostakis, Alexandros & Skiadopoulos, George, 2014. "Are there common factors in individual commodity futures returns?," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 40(C), pages 346-363.
    8. Ahmed, Shamim & Tsvetanov, Daniel, 2016. "The predictive performance of commodity futures risk factors," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 71(C), pages 20-36.
    9. Weron, Rafal, 2008. "Market price of risk implied by Asian-style electricity options and futures," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 30(3), pages 1098-1115, May.
    10. Jonathan Kearns, 2007. "Commodity Currencies: Why Are Exchange Rate Futures Biased if Commodity Futures Are Not?," The Economic Record, The Economic Society of Australia, vol. 83(260), pages 60-73, March.
    11. Alizadeh, Amir H. & Tamvakis, Michael, 2016. "Market conditions, trader types and price–volume relation in energy futures markets," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 56(C), pages 134-149.
    12. Shi, Wei & Irwin, Scott H. & Good, Darrel L. & Dietz, Sarah N., 2005. "Wheat Forward Contract Pricing: Evidence on Forecast Power and Risk Premia," 2005 Conference, April 18-19, 2005, St. Louis, Missouri 19043, NCR-134 Conference on Applied Commodity Price Analysis, Forecasting, and Market Risk Management.
    13. Kim, Jae-Gyeong, 1993. "Futures markets in an open economy," ISU General Staff Papers 1993010108000011461, Iowa State University, Department of Economics.
    14. van den Goorbergh, R.W.J., 2004. "Essays on optimal hedging and investment strategies and on derivative pricing," Other publications TiSEM 4b4b16af-8621-463f-bbfa-0, Tilburg University, School of Economics and Management.
    15. de Roon, F.A. & Nijman, T.E. & Werker, B.J.M., 2000. "Currency Hedging for International Stock Portfolios," ERIM Report Series Research in Management ERS-2000-21-F&A, Erasmus Research Institute of Management (ERIM), ERIM is the joint research institute of the Rotterdam School of Management, Erasmus University and the Erasmus School of Economics (ESE) at Erasmus University Rotterdam.
    16. Basu, Devraj & Miffre, Joëlle, 2013. "Capturing the risk premium of commodity futures: The role of hedging pressure," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 37(7), pages 2652-2664.
    17. Symeonidis, Lazaros & Prokopczuk, Marcel & Brooks, Chris & Lazar, Emese, 2012. "Futures basis, inventory and commodity price volatility: An empirical analysis," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 29(6), pages 2651-2663.
    18. de Roon, F.A. & Nijman, T.E. & Werker, B.J.M., 2003. "Currency hedging for international stock portfolios : The usefulness of mean variance analysis," Other publications TiSEM ef0968be-f501-4434-bc45-0, Tilburg University, School of Economics and Management.
    19. Pietz, Matthäus, 2009. "Risk premia in the German electricity futures market," CEFS Working Paper Series 2009-07, Technische Universität München (TUM), Center for Entrepreneurial and Financial Studies (CEFS).
    20. Weron, Rafał & Zator, Michał, 2014. "Revisiting the relationship between spot and futures prices in the Nord Pool electricity market," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 44(C), pages 178-190.
    21. de Roon, F.A. & Nijman, T.E. & Veld, C.H., 1997. "Analyzing specification errors in models for futures risk premia with hedging pressure," Discussion Paper 1997-102, Tilburg University, Center for Economic Research.

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