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When did European markets integrate?

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  • FEDERICO, GIOVANNI

Abstract

This article argues that market integration should be measured as σ-convergence over the largest possible sample of markets. Its focus is the European market for wheat, rye and candles from the middle of the eighteenth century to the eve of the first globalization. Price dispersion for cereals remained constant until the outbreak of the French Wars, then it increased abruptly. It began to decline after the end of the wars, and the process continued steadily until an all-time low was reached in the 1860s. Domestic and international integration contributed in roughly the same proportions to integration in the long run, but the latter was much more important in accounting for medium-term changes. These results suggest that the level of integration was determined for most of the period by war and political events, with a substantial contribution from a fall in transport costs in the second quarter of the nineteenth century. By contrast, there is very little evidence of integration in the market for candles.

Suggested Citation

  • Federico, Giovanni, 2011. "When did European markets integrate?," European Review of Economic History, Cambridge University Press, vol. 15(01), pages 93-126, April.
  • Handle: RePEc:cup:ereveh:v:15:y:2011:i:01:p:93-126_00
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    Cited by:

    1. Martin Uebele & Daniel Gallardo-Albarrán, 2015. "Paving the way to modernity: Prussian roads and grain market integration in Westphalia, 1821-1855," Scandinavian Economic History Review, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 63(1), pages 69-92, March.
    2. Giovanni Federico & Paul Sharp, 2013. "The cost of railroad regulation: the disintegration of American agricultural markets in the interwar period," Economic History Review, Economic History Society, vol. 66(4), pages 1017-1038, November.
    3. Brunt, Liam & Cannon, Edmund, 2013. "Integration in the English wheat market 1770-1820," CEPR Discussion Papers 9504, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
    4. Chilosi, David & Federico, Giovanni, 2015. "Early globalizations: The integration of Asia in the world economy, 1800–1938," Explorations in Economic History, Elsevier, vol. 57(C), pages 1-18.
    5. Åberg, M. & Fälting, L. & Forssell, A., 2016. "Is Swedish district heating operating on an integrated market? – Differences in pricing, price convergence, and marketing strategy between public and private district heating companies," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 90(C), pages 222-232.
    6. Fenske, James & Kala, Namrata, 2017. "Linguistic Distance and Market Integration in India," CAGE Online Working Paper Series 331, Competitive Advantage in the Global Economy (CAGE).
    7. repec:spr:weltar:v:153:y:2017:i:3:d:10.1007_s10290-017-0279-z is not listed on IDEAS
    8. Chilosi, David & Murphy, Tommy E. & Studer, Roman & Tunçer, A. Coşkun, 2013. "Europe's many integrations: Geography and grain markets, 1620–1913," Explorations in Economic History, Elsevier, vol. 50(1), pages 46-68.
    9. Ke Yao & Xiao-Ping Zheng, 2016. "A Comparison of Market Integration in Nineteenth-Century China and Japan," Australian Economic History Review, Economic History Society of Australia and New Zealand, vol. 56(3), pages 246-271, November.
    10. Giovanni Federico & Antonio Tena-Junguito, 2017. "A tale of two globalizations: gains from trade and openness 1800–2010," Review of World Economics (Weltwirtschaftliches Archiv), Springer;Institut für Weltwirtschaft (Kiel Institute for the World Economy), vol. 153(3), pages 601-626, August.
    11. Klovland, Jan Tore, 2014. "Challenges for the construction of historical price indices: The case of Norway, 1777-1920," Discussion Paper Series in Economics 5/2014, Norwegian School of Economics, Department of Economics.
    12. Keller, Wolfgang & Shiue, Carol Hua, 2013. "The Trade Impact of the Zollverein," CEPR Discussion Papers 9387, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
    13. Morgan Kelly & Cormac Ó Gráda, 2009. "The old poor law : resource constraints and demographic regimes," Working Papers 200908, School of Economics, University College Dublin.

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