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La apertura al comercio exterior y sus efectos sobre la productividad en presencia de diferencias intersectoriales


  • Antonio Navas Ruiz

    (Universidad de Alicante)


Este artículo estudia los efectos que la apertura de una economía al comercio exterior, tiene sobre la productividad a nivel de empresa y a nivel de industria en un entorno donde existen diferencias intersectoriales en niveles de competencia en autarquía. Cuando la economía se abre al comercio internacional, aquellos sectores que son menos competitivos sufren mucho más la competencia extranjera, por lo cual reducen mucho más sus márgenes, y aumentan mucho más el volumen de producción y el personal dedicado a I+D, aumentando la productividad de sus empresas. En presencia de diferencias importantes en niveles de competencia inicial entre sectores, una apertura global puede generar una reducción del personal dedicado a I+D en aquellos sectores más competitivos debido a un efecto crowding-out por parte de los otros sectores: puesto que los menos competitivos ganan más en eficiencia tras la apertura, estos aumentan la demanda de factores rivales desviando recursos hacia su sector en detrimento de los otros sectores.

Suggested Citation

  • Antonio Navas Ruiz, 2010. "La apertura al comercio exterior y sus efectos sobre la productividad en presencia de diferencias intersectoriales," Cuadernos de Economía - Spanish Journal of Economics and Finance, ELSEVIER, vol. 33(92), pages 139-170, Mayo-Sept.
  • Handle: RePEc:cud:journl:v:33:y:2010:i:92:p:139-170

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    References listed on IDEAS

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    More about this item


    International trade; Innovation; Multisectorial models;

    JEL classification:

    • F13 - International Economics - - Trade - - - Trade Policy; International Trade Organizations
    • F43 - International Economics - - Macroeconomic Aspects of International Trade and Finance - - - Economic Growth of Open Economies
    • O3 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Innovation; Research and Development; Technological Change; Intellectual Property Rights


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