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Profiles of Tax Non-compliance Among the Self-Employed in Canada: 1969 to 1992


  • Herb J. Schuetze


This paper utilizes an expenditure-based approach to provide estimates of the degree of income-tax non- compliance by Canadian self-employed households using a series of Canadian Family Expenditure Surveys from 1969 to 1992. These estimates are disaggregated across years, demographic characteristics, and occupation to shed some light on the determinants of such activities and to provide guidance to tax enforcement policymakers. The findings suggest that the degree of non-compliance by the self-employed varies significantly by occupation, age, and the number of household members self-employed.

Suggested Citation

  • Herb J. Schuetze, 2002. "Profiles of Tax Non-compliance Among the Self-Employed in Canada: 1969 to 1992," Canadian Public Policy, University of Toronto Press, vol. 28(2), pages 219-237, June.
  • Handle: RePEc:cpp:issued:v:28:y:2002:i:2:p:219-237

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. David Card & Francis Kramarz & Thomas Lemieux, 1999. "Changes in the Relative Structure of Wages and Employment: A Comparison of the United States, Canada, and France," Canadian Journal of Economics, Canadian Economics Association, vol. 32(4), pages 843-877, August.
    2. A.L Robb & L. Magee & J.B. Burbidge, 2003. "WAGES in CANADA: SCF, SLID, LFS and the Skill Premium," Social and Economic Dimensions of an Aging Population Research Papers 106, McMaster University.
    3. Burbidge, John B & Magee, Lonnie & Robb, A Leslie, 1997. "Canadian Wage Inequality over the Last Two Decades," Empirical Economics, Springer, vol. 22(2), pages 181-203.
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    Cited by:

    1. Mirjam Praag & André Stel, 2013. "The more business owners, the merrier? The role of tertiary education," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 41(2), pages 335-357, August.
    2. Delmar, Frédéric & Folta, Timothy & Wennberg, Karl, 2008. "The dynamics of combining self-employment and employment," Working Paper Series 2008:23, IFAU - Institute for Evaluation of Labour Market and Education Policy.
    3. Åstebro, Thomas & Chen, Jing, 2014. "The entrepreneurial earnings puzzle: Mismeasurement or real?," Journal of Business Venturing, Elsevier, vol. 29(1), pages 88-105.
    4. Merike Kukk & Karsten Staehr, 2014. "Income underreporting by households with business income: evidence from Estonia," Post-Communist Economies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 26(2), pages 257-276, June.
    5. John Gibson & Bonggeun Kim & Chul Chung, 2008. "Using Panel Data to Exactly Estimate Under-Reporting by the Self-Employed," Working Papers in Economics 08/15, University of Waikato.
    6. Zoltan Acs & Thomas Åstebro & David Audretsch & David T. Robinson, 2016. "Public policy to promote entrepreneurship: a call to arms," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 47(1), pages 35-51, June.
    7. Richard Kneller & Danny McGowan, "undated". "Tax Policy and Firm Entry and Exit Dynamics: Evidence from OECD Countries," Discussion Papers 11/08, University of Nottingham, School of Economics.
    8. Roberto Dell´Anno, 2007. "The shadow economy in Portugal: An analysis with the MIMIC approach," Journal of Applied Economics, Universidad del CEMA, vol. 10, pages 253-277, November.
    9. Kim , Bonggeun & Gibson , John & Chung , Chul, 2009. "Using Panel Data to Exactly Estimate Income Under-Reporting by the Self Employed," Working Papers 09-2, Korea Institute for International Economic Policy.
    10. Paulus, Alari, 2015. "Tax evasion and measurement error: An econometric analysis of survey data linked with tax records," ISER Working Paper Series 2015-10, Institute for Social and Economic Research.
    11. Tomas Lichard & Jan Hanousek & Randall K. Filer, 2012. "Measuring the Shadow Economy: Endogenous Switching Regression with Unobserved Separation," Economics Working Paper Archive at Hunter College 438, Hunter College Department of Economics.
    12. Per Engstrom & Bertil Holmlund, 2009. "Tax evasion and self-employment in a high-tax country: evidence from Sweden," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 41(19), pages 2419-2430.
    13. Paulus, Alari, 2015. "Income underreporting based on income-expenditure gaps: survey vs tax records," ISER Working Paper Series 2015-15, Institute for Social and Economic Research.
    14. Engström, Per & Hagen, Johannes, 2017. "Income underreporting among the self-employed: A permanent income approach," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 92(C), pages 92-109.
    15. Tazhitdinova, Alisa, 2015. "Reducing Evasion Through Self-Reporting: Theory and Evidence from Charitable Contributions," MPRA Paper 81612, University Library of Munich, Germany, revised 2017.
    16. Diego Martinez-Lopez, 2013. "The underreporting of income by self-employed workers in Spain," SERIEs: Journal of the Spanish Economic Association, Springer;Spanish Economic Association, vol. 4(4), pages 353-371, November.
    17. Lindsay Tedds, 2010. "Estimating the income reporting function for the self-employed," Empirical Economics, Springer, vol. 38(3), pages 669-687, June.
    18. Odd Erik Nygård & Joel Slemrod & Thor Olav Thoresen, 2016. "Distributional Implications of Joint Tax Evasion," CESifo Working Paper Series 5915, CESifo Group Munich.
    19. Diego Martínez López, 2011. "How different are the Spanish self-employed workers by underreporting their incomes?," Working Papers. Serie EC 2011-09, Instituto Valenciano de Investigaciones Económicas, S.A. (Ivie).
    20. repec:bla:manchs:v:85:y:2017:i:1:p:41-64 is not listed on IDEAS
    21. Ergete Ferede, 2013. "Tax progressivity and self-employment: evidence from Canadian provinces," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 40(1), pages 141-153, January.
    22. Edvard Johansson, 2005. "An estimate of self-employment income underreporting in Finland," Nordic Journal of Political Economy, Nordic Journal of Political Economy, vol. 31, pages 99-109.
    23. Tufan Ekici & Mustafa Besim, 2016. "A Measure of the Shadow Economy in a Small Economy: Evidence from Household-Level Expenditure Patterns," Review of Income and Wealth, International Association for Research in Income and Wealth, vol. 62(1), pages 145-160, March.
    24. Eduardo Augusto Soares Coelho Barbosa & Samuel Cruz Alves Pereira & Elísio Fernando Moreira Brandão, 2013. "The Shadow Economy in Portugal: An Analysis Using the MIMIC Model," FEP Working Papers 514, Universidade do Porto, Faculdade de Economia do Porto.

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