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The Benefits of Immigrants to Canada: Evidence on Tax and Public Services

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  • Ather H. Akbari

Abstract

The life-cycle theory implication that immigrants, being young at the time of arrival, should benefit the native-born population in a tax-transfer system is analyzed for Canada. Microdata from the 1981 Canadian Census of Population are used. Consumption of major public services and payment of major taxes by the average immigrant and non-immigrant households are considered. It is observed that even after they have stayed for 35 years in Canada, immigrant households are a source of public fund transfers to non-immigrants. This confirms the life-cycle net benefit hypothesis. Implications for public policy with respect to immigration policy are suggested.

Suggested Citation

  • Ather H. Akbari, 1989. "The Benefits of Immigrants to Canada: Evidence on Tax and Public Services," Canadian Public Policy, University of Toronto Press, vol. 15(4), pages 424-435, December.
  • Handle: RePEc:cpp:issued:v:15:y:1989:i:4:p:424-435
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    Citations

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    Cited by:

    1. Pawel Kaczmarczyk, 2013. "Are immigrants a burden for the state budget? Review paper," EUI-RSCAS Working Papers p0356, European University Institute (EUI), Robert Schuman Centre of Advanced Studies (RSCAS).
    2. Grubel, Herbert & Grady, Patrick, 2012. "Fiscal transfers to immigrants in Canada: responding to critics and a revised estimate," MPRA Paper 37406, University Library of Munich, Germany, revised 06 Mar 2012.
    3. Kjetil Storesletten, 2000. "Sustaining Fiscal Policy through Immigration," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 108(2), pages 300-323, April.
    4. Sohrab Abizadeh & Nancy Ghalam, 1994. "Immigrants and Canadian-born: A consumption behaviour assessment," Social Indicators Research: An International and Interdisciplinary Journal for Quality-of-Life Measurement, Springer, vol. 32(1), pages 49-72, May.
    5. Grady, Patrick, 2011. "A Critique of “Macroeconomic Impacts of Canadian Immigration… Using the Focus Model” (Dungan, Fang and Gunderson, 2010)," MPRA Paper 65454, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    6. Hisahiro Naito, 2015. "Immigration as a Policy Tool for the Double Burden Problem of Prefunding Pay-as-you-go Social Security System," Tsukuba Economics Working Papers 2015-002, Economics, Graduate School of Humanities and Social Sciences, University of Tsukuba.
    7. René Weber & Thomas Straubhaar, 1996. "Immigration and the public transfer system: Some empirical evidence for Switzerland," Review of World Economics (Weltwirtschaftliches Archiv), Springer;Institut für Weltwirtschaft (Kiel Institute for the World Economy), vol. 132(2), pages 330-355, September.
    8. Kaczmarczyk, Pawel, 2015. "Burden or Relief? Fiscal Impacts of Recent Ukrainian Migration to Poland," IZA Discussion Papers 8779, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
    9. Lin, Zhengxi, 1998. "Foreign-born vs Native-born Canadians: A Comparison of Their Inter-provincial Labour Mobility," Analytical Studies Branch Research Paper Series 1998114e, Statistics Canada, Analytical Studies Branch.
    10. Hisahiro Naito, 2014. "Pareto-improving Immigration and Its Effect on Capital Accumulation in the Presence of Social Security," UTokyo Price Project Working Paper Series 027, University of Tokyo, Graduate School of Economics.
    11. Mireille Laroche, 2000. "Health Status and Health Services Utilization of Canada's Immigrant and Non-Immigrant Populations," Canadian Public Policy, University of Toronto Press, vol. 26(1), pages 51-75, March.
    12. Lin, Zhengxi, 1998. "Canadiens nes a l'etranger et Canadiens de naissance : une comparaison de la mobilite interprovinciale de leur main-d'oeuvre," Direction des etudes analytiques : documents de recherche 1998114f, Statistics Canada, Direction des etudes analytiques.
    13. Hisahiro Naito, 2014. "Pareto-improving Immigration in the Presence of Social Security," Tsukuba Economics Working Papers 2014-003, Economics, Graduate School of Humanities and Social Sciences, University of Tsukuba.
    14. Bonin, Holger, 2002. "Eine fiskalische Gesamtbilanz der Zuwanderung nach Deutschland," IZA Discussion Papers 516, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
    15. R. G. Coulson & D. J. DeVoretz, 1993. "Human Capital Content of Canadian Immigrants: 1967-1987," Canadian Public Policy, University of Toronto Press, vol. 19(4), pages 357-366, December.
    16. Karin Mayr, 2004. "The fiscal impact of immigrants in Austria--a generational accounting analysis," Economics working papers 2004-09, Department of Economics, Johannes Kepler University Linz, Austria.
    17. James Ted McDonald & Christopher Worswick, 1997. "Unemployment Incidence of Immigrant Men in Canada," Canadian Public Policy, University of Toronto Press, vol. 23(4), pages 353-373, December.
    18. Charles M. Beach & Christopher Worswick, 1993. "Is There a Double-Negative Effect on the Earnings of Immigrant Women?," Canadian Public Policy, University of Toronto Press, vol. 19(1), pages 36-53, March.
    19. Hinte, Holger & Zimmermann, Klaus F., 2014. "Does the Calculation Hold? The Fiscal Balance of Migration to Denmark and Germany," IZA Policy Papers 87, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
    20. Arnold de Silva, 1997. "Immigrant Participation in the Unemployment Insurance System," Canadian Public Policy, University of Toronto Press, vol. 23(4), pages 375-397, December.
    21. Hisahiro Naito, 2013. "Pareto-improving Immigration and Its Effect on Capital Accumulation in the Presence of Social Security," Tsukuba Economics Working Papers 2013-004, Economics, Graduate School of Humanities and Social Sciences, University of Tsukuba.
    22. Hisahiro Naito, "undated". "Pareto-improving Immigration and Its Effect on Capital Accumulation in the Presence of Social Security," Working Papers e81, Tokyo Center for Economic Research.
    23. Bharati Basu & Richard B Clemmer, 2009. "Do immigrants pose a fiscal burden on the host country budget? : a case study for Michigan," Economics Bulletin, AccessEcon, vol. 29(3), pages 2174-2201.

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