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Impact de l'ouverture financiere sur les inegalites internes dans les pays emergents

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  • Veronique Salins

Abstract

Cet article s’interesse a l’impact de l’ouverture financiere sur les disparites internes de revenu. L’analyse s’appuie sur l’evolution de la distribution du revenu de onze pays emergents ayant tous mis en place des reformes de liberalisation financiere entre 1980 et 2000, ainsi que sur des mesures agregees d’inegalites pour quarante-deux pays pour l’annee 2001. Les resultats econometriques montrent que l’ouverture financiere tend a favoriser le quintile le mieux loti de la population, au detriment de la classe moyenne, et que c’est l’investissement direct etranger et l’investissement bancaire plus que l’investissement de portefeuille qui sont a l’origine de cet effet. Cependant l’ouverture financiere tend a reduire les inegalites de revenus entre villes et campagnes. La coherence de ces resultats pourrait venir du fait que les firmes multinationales emploient une main-d’oeuvre relativement qualifiee a qui elles versent des salaires relativement eleves, permettant aux salaries immigres de la campagne de renvoyer des fonds importants a leurs familles.

Suggested Citation

  • Veronique Salins, 2007. "Impact de l'ouverture financiere sur les inegalites internes dans les pays emergents," Economie Internationale, CEPII research center, issue 110, pages 137-169.
  • Handle: RePEc:cii:cepiei:2007-2te
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    File URL: http://www.economieinternationale.fr/francgraph/publications/ecointern/rev110/rev110e.htm
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    More about this item

    Keywords

    Ouverture financiere; inegalites internes; economies emergentes; controles des capitaux; IDE; inegalites; marches des capitaux; salaires;

    JEL classification:

    • D63 - Microeconomics - - Welfare Economics - - - Equity, Justice, Inequality, and Other Normative Criteria and Measurement
    • F21 - International Economics - - International Factor Movements and International Business - - - International Investment; Long-Term Capital Movements
    • F23 - International Economics - - International Factor Movements and International Business - - - Multinational Firms; International Business
    • O18 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Economic Development - - - Urban, Rural, Regional, and Transportation Analysis; Housing; Infrastructure

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