Islam, institutions et développement
Analyzing the existing historical linkages between development dynamics and the nature of institutions, the neo-institutionalist economic literature highlights the role of cultural and religious beliefs, in locking economic expansion within the Arab-Muslim world. The hypothesis underlying this work emphasizes two essential factors : on the one hand, the predominance within Muslim countries of personal and informal links, and on the other hand, the predominance of collectivist behaviors, whereas the individualistic orientation of the western medieval world helped to ensure its superiority. This contribution endeavours, in reference to Ibn Khaldûn’s intuitions, to show that, far from being attributed to cultural factors, the limits of economic development are related to the institutional rigidification process that the Arab-Muslim world has experienced since the 12th century.
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