IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/a/cai/reofsp/reof_126_0155.html
   My bibliography  Save this article

Les réseaux sociaux d'aujourd'hui. Un monde décidément bien petit

Author

Listed:
  • Michel Forsé

Abstract

In a famous experiment, Stanley Milgram showed in 1969 that, on the average, 6 links (therefore passing through 5 intermediates) were sufficient to connect two strangers in the United States. These six degrees of separation have been observed by other studies but also carrying on small samples. The advent of social networks on the Internet has recently allowed checks on a massive scale. Studies of the Microsoft instant messaging, Twitter or Facebook confirmed and even amplified the small world hypothesis. Thus, by analyzing the 69 billion relationships between the 721 million people having logged into Facebook in May 2011, it appears that the average distance (or number of degrees) between two randomly selected users on the planet is 4.7. Various explanations of the small world are discussed in this article (weak ties between clusters, the presence of hubs in a scale-free structure) and appear in the end rather complementary. JEL classification : Z1, Z19

Suggested Citation

  • Michel Forsé, 2012. "Les réseaux sociaux d'aujourd'hui. Un monde décidément bien petit," Revue de l'OFCE, Presses de Sciences-Po, vol. 0(7), pages 155-169.
  • Handle: RePEc:cai:reofsp:reof_126_0155
    as

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL: http://www.cairn.info/load_pdf.php?ID_ARTICLE=REOF_126_0155
    Download Restriction: free

    File URL: http://www.cairn.info/revue-de-l-ofce-2012-7-page-155.htm
    Download Restriction: free

    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Mathieu Bunel & Céline Emond & Yannick L’Horty, 2012. "Évaluer les réformes des exonérations générales de cotisations sociales," Revue de l'OFCE, Presses de Sciences-Po, pages 57-103.
    2. Marion Cochard & Gérard Cornilleau & Eric Heyer, 2010. "Les marchés du travail dans la crise," Économie et Statistique, Programme National Persée, vol. 438(1), pages 181-204.
    3. Valérie Chauvin & Gaël Dupont & Éric Heyer & Mathieu Plane & Xavier Timbeau, 2002. "Le modèle France de l'OFCE. La nouvelle version : e-mod.fr," Revue de l'OFCE, Presses de Sciences-Po, pages 245-300.
    4. Mathieu Plane, 2012. "Évaluation de l'impact économique du crédit d'impôt pour la compétitivité et l'emploi (CICE)," Revue de l'OFCE, Presses de Sciences-Po, pages 141-153.
    5. Christian Gianella & Sandrine Duchêne & Sébastien Doisy, 2004. "Un modèle d’appariement avec hétérogénéité du facteur travail : un nouvel outil d’évaluation des politiques économiques," Économie et Prévision, Programme National Persée, vol. 162(1), pages 1-22.
    6. Pierre-Yves Cabannes & Hélène Erkel-Rousse & Caroline Klein & Guy Lalanne & Olivier Monso & Erwan Pouliquen & Olivier Simon, 2012. "Survol de Mésange : un modèle macroéconomique à l'usage du praticien," Économie et Statistique, Programme National Persée, vol. 451(1), pages 179-216.
    7. Sébastien Doisy & Sandrine Duchêne & Christian Gianella, 2004. "Un modèle d'appariement avec hétérogénéité du facteur travail : un nouvel outil d'évaluation des politiques économiques," Economie & Prévision, La Documentation Française, pages 1-22.
    8. repec:hal:journl:halshs-00270295 is not listed on IDEAS
    9. Francis Kramarz & Thomas Philippon, 2000. "The Impact of Differenctial Payroll Tax Subsidies on Minimum Wage Employment," Working Papers 2000-10, Center for Research in Economics and Statistics.
    10. Kramarz, Francis & Philippon, Thomas, 2001. "The impact of differential payroll tax subsidies on minimum wage employment," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, pages 115-146.
    11. Simon Cueva & Éric Heyer, 1997. "Fonction de production et degrés d'utilisation du capital et du travail : une analyse économétrique," Économie et Prévision, Programme National Persée, vol. 131(5), pages 93-111.
    12. P. BISCOURP & Ch. GIANELLA, 2001. "Substitution and complementarity between capital, skilled and less skilled workers: an analysis at the firm level in the French manufacturing industry," Documents de Travail de la DESE - Working Papers of the DESE g2001-13, Institut National de la Statistique et des Etudes Economiques, DESE.
    13. Sophie Audric & Pauline Givord & Corinne Prost, 2000. "Estimation de l'impact sur l'emploi non qualifié des mesures de baisse de charges," Revue Économique, Programme National Persée, vol. 51(3), pages 513-522.
    14. Henri Sterdyniak, 2002. "Une arme miracle contre le chômage ? Fiche de lecture sur 'Une nouvelle évaluation des effets des allègements de charges sociales sur les bas salaires'," Sciences Po publications info:hdl:2441/5271, Sciences Po.
    15. Raj Chetty & Adam Guren & Day Manoli & Andrea Weber, 2011. "Are Micro and Macro Labor Supply Elasticities Consistent? A Review of Evidence on the Intensive and Extensive Margins," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, pages 471-475.
    16. Chéron, Arnaud & Hairault, Jean-Olivier & Langot, François, 2008. "A quantitative evaluation of payroll tax subsidies for low-wage workers: An equilibrium search approach," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, pages 817-843.
    17. Pierre Cahuc, 2003. "Baisser les charges sociales, jusqu'où et comment ?," Revue Française d'Économie, Programme National Persée, vol. 17(3), pages 3-54.
    18. Islem Gafsi & Yannick L’Horty & Ferhat Mihoubi, 2004. "Allègement du coût du travail et emploi peu qualifié : une réévaluation," Documents de recherche 04-03, Centre d'Études des Politiques Économiques (EPEE), Université d'Evry Val d'Essonne.
    19. Jean-Pierre Laffargue, 2000. "Effets et financement d'une réduction des charges sur les bas salaires," Revue Économique, Programme National Persée, vol. 51(3), pages 489-498.
    20. Chéron, Arnaud & Hairault, Jean-Olivier & Langot, François, 2008. "A quantitative evaluation of payroll tax subsidies for low-wage workers: An equilibrium search approach," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, pages 817-843.
    21. Daniel S. Hamermesh, 1993. "Labor Demand and the Source of Adjustment Costs," NBER Working Papers 4394, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    22. repec:adr:anecst:y:2002:i:66:p:04 is not listed on IDEAS
    23. Muriel Barlet & Didier Blanchet & Thomas Le Barbanchon, 2009. "Microsimulation et modèles d’agents : une approche alternative pour l’évaluation des politiques d’emploi," Économie et Statistique, Programme National Persée, vol. 429(1), pages 51-76.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    More about this item

    Keywords

    social networks; small world; six degrees of separation; clusters; hubs; scale-free network; weak ties; instant messaging; Twitter; Facebook;

    JEL classification:

    • Z1 - Other Special Topics - - Cultural Economics
    • Z19 - Other Special Topics - - Cultural Economics - - - Other

    Statistics

    Access and download statistics

    Corrections

    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:cai:reofsp:reof_126_0155. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Jean-Baptiste de Vathaire). General contact details of provider: http://www.cairn.info/revue-de-l-ofce.htm .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    We have no references for this item. You can help adding them by using this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.