Le modèle social européen et l'Europe sociale
There is a broad consensus in Europe that there is a specific European Social Model (ESM) that should be preserved. However this notion remains ambiguous. In recent years, economic performances have been better in liberal and Scandinavian countries than in continental and Mediterranean countries. Should EU countries move towards liberal or Scandinavian models? Can the ESM survive in a global world? Three views are highlighted: preserving the ESM with high social cohesion, low inequalities and social welfare; making work pay, which should initially increase inequalities but could rise output and ensure the system financial stability; introducing a new architecture for welfare states inspired by increasing the role of social protection as a production factor. The need of a Social Europe and the respective roles of national and European institutions in the evolution of the ESM (or ESMs) are discussed. JEL classification: H50, I30.
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