Les industries de haute technologie de la zone euro et des États-Unis. Une étude comparée de la compétitivité et des parts de marché
The aim of this paper is first, to analyze the nature of the gap in high tech industries (HT), between the United States and the EMU, and second, to investigate the link between cost competitiveness and market shares in these industries. We show that there is a growing production gap between US and EMU, in favour of US, since the beginning of 1990s. But surprisingly, EMU exports caught up the US exports in HT while the EMU increased its world market shares. Our investigation of the relationship between export market shares and cost competitiveness leads to two results. We conclude first, that the cost-competitiveness, through the exchange rate and the labour productivity, affects the changes in market shares of HT; second, that a non-cost competitiveness is also acting. The latter is conveyed by higher labour cost associated to high skilled qualification. JEL Codes: F14, L63, L60, F31, O30.
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