Commerce des bioénergies et émissions de gaz à effet de serre
To appraise the impacts of producing and trading bioenergy on green-house gas (ghg) emissions, we develop a general equilibrium model with trade of a world economy involving many countries belonging to two regions, North and South. Bach economy comprises two sectors, industry and agriculture, which are both responsible for ghg emissions. We assume that Northern countries have a larger endowment in efective labor than Southern countries. Whereas autarky emission levels are identical across countries, agricultural emissions are higher in South and industrial emissions are higher in North at a diversifed trade equilibrium. Trade of bioenergy decreases global emissions worldwide, which increases the welfare of all consumers. While a less stringent environmental regulation in Southern countries attracts the more pollution-intensive industries, North concentrates most of the industries and becomes thereby the largest polluter contrary to the prediction of the “pollution haven” hypothesis. Trade also increases the wealth discrepancy between Southern and Northern countries.
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