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Female labour force participation in Greece: developments and determining factors


  • Daphne Nicolitsas

    () (Bank of Greece)


This paper looks at developments in female labour force participation in Greece since the 1960s and attempts to identify factors that contributed to changes in the participation rate and explanations for the gap in the female participation rate between Greece and the EU- 15. The analysis uses both time series data and cross-section data from the 2001 wave of the European Community Household Panel (ECHP). The results suggest that institutional, social and economic factors contributed to quantitative and qualitative changes in the role of women in the labour market after 1980 but a gap with the EU-15 in terms of participation rates still remains. The negative correlation between the number of children and the participation rate, which is clear from the sample used in the paper, together with the shortage of childcare facilities, suggests that improvements in childcare infrastructure could increase participation. Certain features of the operation of product markets could also be hindering job creation especially of part-time jobs.

Suggested Citation

  • Daphne Nicolitsas, 2006. "Female labour force participation in Greece: developments and determining factors," Economic Bulletin, Bank of Greece, issue 26, pages 7-35, January.
  • Handle: RePEc:bog:econbl:y:2006:i:26:p:7-35

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    Cited by:

    1. Costas N. Kanellopoulos, 2012. "Employment and worker flows during the financial crisis," Economic Bulletin, Bank of Greece, issue 36, pages 31-41, April.
    2. Costas N. Kanellopoulos, 2014. "The private sector Greek labour market during the crisis," Economic Bulletin, Bank of Greece, issue 39, pages 21-36, July.
    3. Petros M. Migiakis, 2012. "Reviewing the proposals for common bond issuances by the euro-area sovereign under a long-term perspective," Economic Bulletin, Bank of Greece, issue 37, pages 43-54, December.
    4. Costas N. Kanellopoulos, 2012. "The Size and structure of uninsured employment," Economic Bulletin, Bank of Greece, issue 37, pages 23-41, December.
    5. Eugenia Fotoniata & Thomas Moutos, 2010. "Greece: Neglect and Resurgence of Minimum Wage Policy," Chapters,in: The Minimum Wage Revisited in the Enlarged EU, chapter 7 Edward Elgar Publishing.
    6. Giannakopoulos, Nicholas, 2015. "The added worker effect of married women in Greece during the Great Depression," MPRA Paper 66298, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    7. Zacharias Bragoudakis & Dimitrios Sideris, 2012. "Do retail gasoline prices adjust symmetrically to crude oil price changes? the case of the Greek oil market," Economic Bulletin, Bank of Greece, issue 37, pages 7-21, December.
    8. Sophia Lazaretou, 2014. "The smart economy: cultural and creative industries in Greece: can they be a way out of the crisis?," Economic Bulletin, Bank of Greece, issue 39, pages 73-103, July.
    9. Dimitra Dimitropoulou & Anastasia Koutsomanoli-Filippaki & Evangelos Charalambakis & Georgios Aggelis, 2014. "The financing of Greek enterprises before and during the crisis," Economic Bulletin, Bank of Greece, issue 39, pages 7-20, July.
    10. Aikaterini Chaireti, 2014. "The housing situation of residents of Greece in the time of crisis 2008-2012," Economic Bulletin, Bank of Greece, issue 39, pages 105-141, July.
    11. Lyberaki, Antigone, 2010. "The record of gender policies in Greece 1980-2010: legal form and economic substance," LSE Research Online Documents on Economics 28437, London School of Economics and Political Science, LSE Library.
    12. Faidon Kalfaoglou, 2014. "European banking union: “Europeanising” banks’ financial safety net," Economic Bulletin, Bank of Greece, issue 39, pages 37-72, July.

    More about this item


    female labour force participation; institutional factors; child care; probit model.;

    JEL classification:

    • E24 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - Consumption, Saving, Production, Employment, and Investment - - - Employment; Unemployment; Wages; Intergenerational Income Distribution; Aggregate Human Capital; Aggregate Labor Productivity
    • J21 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demand and Supply of Labor - - - Labor Force and Employment, Size, and Structure
    • J22 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demand and Supply of Labor - - - Time Allocation and Labor Supply


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