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Law and the Determinants of Property-Casualty Insurance


  • Neil Esho
  • Anatoly Kirievsky
  • Damian Ward
  • Ralf Zurbruegg


This article examines the importance of legal rights and enforcement in influencing property-casualty insurance (PCI) consumption. We extend the existing literature by examining the role of legal factors in determining insurance density across countries. Also, measures of risk aversion, loss probability, and price, which overcome limitations of proxies used in the existing literature on insurance demand, are analyzed. Using a panel data set, we apply a generalized methods of moments dynamic system estimator, which relaxes the assumption of strict exogeneity of the regressors and produces unbiased and efficient estimates. The results show a strong positive relationship between the protection of property rights and insurance consumption, which is robust to various model specifications and estimation techniques. Moreover, the results show the purchase of PCI is significantly and positively related to loss probability and income, as well as providing weaker evidence of a negative relationship with price. Copyright The Journal of Risk and Insurance.

Suggested Citation

  • Neil Esho & Anatoly Kirievsky & Damian Ward & Ralf Zurbruegg, 2004. "Law and the Determinants of Property-Casualty Insurance," Journal of Risk & Insurance, The American Risk and Insurance Association, vol. 71(2), pages 265-283.
  • Handle: RePEc:bla:jrinsu:v:71:y:2004:i:2:p:265-283

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Gur Huberman & David Mayers & Clifford W. Smith Jr., 1983. "Optimal Insurance Policy Indemnity Schedules," Bell Journal of Economics, The RAND Corporation, vol. 14(2), pages 415-426, Autumn.
    2. Gollier, Christian & Schlesinger, Harris, 1996. "Arrow's Theorem on the Optimality of Deductibles: A Stochastic Dominance Approach," Economic Theory, Springer;Society for the Advancement of Economic Theory (SAET), vol. 7(2), pages 359-363, February.
    3. Rothschild, Michael & Stiglitz, Joseph E., 1970. "Increasing risk: I. A definition," Journal of Economic Theory, Elsevier, vol. 2(3), pages 225-243, September.
    4. Picard, Pierre, 2000. "On the Design of Optimal Insurance Policies under Manipulation of Audit Cost," International Economic Review, Department of Economics, University of Pennsylvania and Osaka University Institute of Social and Economic Research Association, vol. 41(4), pages 1049-1071, November.
    5. Neil A. Doherty & Harris Schlesinger, 1990. "Rational Insurance Purchasing: Consideration of Contract Nonperformance," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 105(1), pages 243-253.
    6. Meyer, Jack & Ormiston, Michael B, 1999. "Analyzing the Demand for Deductible Insurance," Journal of Risk and Uncertainty, Springer, vol. 18(3), pages 223-230, October.
    7. Raviv, Artur, 1979. "The Design of an Optimal Insurance Policy," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 69(1), pages 84-96, March.
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    Cited by:

    1. repec:eee:quaeco:v:66:y:2017:i:c:p:136-148 is not listed on IDEAS
    2. Pradhan, Rudra P. & Arvin, Mak B. & Norman, Neville R., 2015. "Insurance development and the finance-growth nexus: Evidence from 34 OECD countries," Journal of Multinational Financial Management, Elsevier, vol. 31(C), pages 1-22.
    3. Eglantina Zyka & Elena Myftaraj (Tomori), 2014. "Factors affecting the insurance sector development: Evidence from Albania," Romanian Economic Journal, Department of International Business and Economics from the Academy of Economic Studies Bucharest, vol. 17(51), pages 171-188, March.
    4. Peter Haiss & Kjell Sümegi, 2008. "The relationship between insurance and economic growth in Europe: a theoretical and empirical analysis," Empirica, Springer;Austrian Institute for Economic Research;Austrian Economic Association, vol. 35(4), pages 405-431, September.
    5. Giovanni Millo & Gaetano Carmeci, 2011. "Non-life insurance consumption in Italy: a sub-regional panel data analysis," Journal of Geographical Systems, Springer, vol. 13(3), pages 273-298, September.
    6. Samuel GUERINEAU & Relwende SAWADOGO, 2015. "On the determinants of life insurance development in Sub-Saharan Africa: the role of the institutions quality in the effect of economic development," Working Papers 201519, CERDI.
    7. Chui, Andy C.W. & Kwok, Chuck C.Y., 2009. "Cultural practices and life insurance consumption: An international analysis using GLOBE scores," Journal of Multinational Financial Management, Elsevier, vol. 19(4), pages 273-290, October.
    8. Lee, Chien-Chiang & Chiu, Yi-Bin & Chang, Chi-Hung, 2013. "Insurance demand and country risks: A nonlinear panel data analysis," Journal of International Money and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 36(C), pages 68-85.
    9. Giovanni Millo, 2016. "The Income Elasticity of Nonlife Insurance: A Reassessment," Journal of Risk & Insurance, The American Risk and Insurance Association, vol. 83(2), pages 335-362, June.
    10. J. François Outreville, 2011. "The relationship between insurance growth and economic development - 80 empirical papers for a review of the literature," ICER Working Papers 12-2011, ICER - International Centre for Economic Research.
    11. Lin, Chen & Lin, Ping & Zou, Hong, 2012. "Does property rights protection affect corporate risk management strategy? Intra- and cross-country evidence," Journal of Corporate Finance, Elsevier, vol. 18(2), pages 311-330.
    12. Kalchev, Georgi, 2006. "The Demand for Directors’ and Officers’ Liability Insurance by US Public Companies," EconStor Open Access Articles, ZBW - German National Library of Economics, pages 351-360.
    13. Kjell Sümegi & Peter Haiss, "undated". "The Relationship of Insurance and Economic Growth - a Theoretical and Empirical Analysis," EcoMod2006 272100091, EcoMod.
    14. J. Francois Outreville, 2014. "Risk Aversion, Risk Behavior, and Demand for Insurance: A Survey," Journal of Insurance Issues, Western Risk and Insurance Association, vol. 37(2), pages 158-186.
    15. Anne Corcos & François Pannequin & Claude Montmarquette, 2017. "Statistical tests of the demand for insurance: an “all or nothing” decision," CIRANO Working Papers 2017s-07, CIRANO.
    16. repec:pal:gpprii:v:43:y:2018:i:1:d:10.1057_s41288-017-0075-y is not listed on IDEAS
    17. repec:rss:jnljms:v1i12p1 is not listed on IDEAS
    18. repec:eee:revfin:v:33:y:2017:i:c:p:12-28 is not listed on IDEAS
    19. repec:kap:expeco:v:20:y:2017:i:4:d:10.1007_s10683-017-9513-8 is not listed on IDEAS
    20. Anne Corcos & François Pannequin & Claude Montmarquette, 2016. "Leaving the market or reducing the coverage?," CIRANO Working Papers 2016s-26, CIRANO.

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