IDEAS home Printed from
   My bibliography  Save this article

Understanding Size And The Book-To-Market Ratio: An Empirical Exploration Of Berk'S Critique


  • Xinting Fan
  • Ming Liu


Because they are scaled by price, the ability of size (i.e., the market capitalization of a firm) and the book-to-market equity ratio to determine expected returns may, according to Berk (1995), reflect only a simultaneity bias. The two-stage least squares approach is used to control for this bias and to investigate the economic meanings of these variables. We discover that size and the book-to-market ratio contain distinct and significant components of financial distress, growth options, the momentum effect, liquidity, and firm characteristics. Our findings support Berk in his contention that that size and the book-to-market ratio reflect a combination of different economic mechanisms that are misspecified in the expected return process. 2005 The Southern Finance Association and the Southwestern Finance Association.

Suggested Citation

  • Xinting Fan & Ming Liu, 2005. "Understanding Size And The Book-To-Market Ratio: An Empirical Exploration Of Berk'S Critique," Journal of Financial Research, Southern Finance Association;Southwestern Finance Association, vol. 28(4), pages 503-518.
  • Handle: RePEc:bla:jfnres:v:28:y:2005:i:4:p:503-518

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL:
    File Function: link to full text
    Download Restriction: Access to full text is restricted to subscribers.

    As the access to this document is restricted, you may want to search for a different version of it.


    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.

    Cited by:

    1. Apergis, Nicholas & Payne, James E., 2014. "Resurrecting the size effect: Evidence from a panel nonlinear cointegration model for the G7 stock markets," Review of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 23(1), pages 46-53.

    More about this item


    Access and download statistics


    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:bla:jfnres:v:28:y:2005:i:4:p:503-518. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Wiley-Blackwell Digital Licensing) or (Christopher F. Baum). General contact details of provider: .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    We have no references for this item. You can help adding them by using this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.