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The Price of Immediacy




This paper models transaction costs as the rents that a monopolistic market maker extracts from impatient investors who trade via limit orders. We show that limit orders are American options. The limit prices inducing immediate execution of the order are functionally equivalent to bid and ask prices and can be solved for various transaction sizes to characterize the market maker's entire supply curve. We find considerable empirical support for the model's predictions in the cross‐section of NYSE firms. The model produces unbiased, out‐of‐sample forecasts of abnormal returns for firms added to the S&P 500 index.

Suggested Citation

  • George C. Chacko & Jakub W. Jurek & Erik Stafford, 2008. "The Price of Immediacy," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 63(3), pages 1253-1290, June.
  • Handle: RePEc:bla:jfinan:v:63:y:2008:i:3:p:1253-1290
    DOI: 10.1111/j.1540-6261.2008.01357.x

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    Cited by:

    1. Härdle, Wolfgang Karl & Hautsch, Nikolaus & Mihoci, Andrija, 2012. "Modelling and forecasting liquidity supply using semiparametric factor dynamics," Journal of Empirical Finance, Elsevier, vol. 19(4), pages 610-625.
    2. Konstantinos Konstantaras & Vasilios Sogiakas, 2019. "Is stock liquidity transferred and upgraded in acquisitions? Evidence from liquidity synergies in US freeze-outs," Annals of Operations Research, Springer, vol. 282(1), pages 179-216, November.
    3. Ivan Breskovic & Ivona Brandic & Jorn Altmann, 2013. "Maximizing Liquidity in Cloud Markets through Standardization of Computational Resources," TEMEP Discussion Papers 2013100, Seoul National University; Technology Management, Economics, and Policy Program (TEMEP), revised Feb 2013.
    4. Francis Longstaff, 2014. "Valuing Thinly-Traded Assets," NBER Working Papers 20589, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    5. Feng-Tse Tsai, 2019. "Option Implied Stock Buy-Side and Sell-Side Market Depths," Risks, MDPI, Open Access Journal, vol. 7(4), pages 1-16, October.
    6. Gârleanu, Nicolae & Pedersen, Lasse Heje, 2016. "Dynamic portfolio choice with frictions," Journal of Economic Theory, Elsevier, vol. 165(C), pages 487-516.
    7. Edward W. Sun & Timm Kruse & Yi-Ting Chen, 2019. "Stylized algorithmic trading: satisfying the predictive near-term demand of liquidity," Annals of Operations Research, Springer, vol. 281(1), pages 315-347, October.
    8. Dale W. R. Rosenthal, 2012. "Modeling Trade Direction," Journal of Financial Econometrics, Society for Financial Econometrics, vol. 10(2), pages 390-415, 2012 04.
    9. Das, Sanjiv R. & Hanouna, Paul, 2009. "Hedging credit: Equity liquidity matters," Journal of Financial Intermediation, Elsevier, vol. 18(1), pages 112-123, January.
    10. Andrew Ang & Nicolas P.B. Bollen, 2010. "Locked Up by a Lockup: Valuing Liquidity as a Real Option," Financial Management, Financial Management Association International, vol. 39(3), pages 1069-1096, September.
    11. Chacko, George & Das, Sanjiv & Fan, Rong, 2016. "An index-based measure of liquidity," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 68(C), pages 162-178.
    12. Fourel, V. & Idier, J., 2011. "Risk aversion and Uncertainty in European Sovereign Bond Markets," Working papers 349, Banque de France.
    13. Bence Toth & Yves Lemperiere & Cyril Deremble & Joachim de Lataillade & Julien Kockelkoren & Jean-Philippe Bouchaud, 2011. "Anomalous price impact and the critical nature of liquidity in financial markets," Papers 1105.1694,, revised Nov 2011.
    14. Greenwood, Robin & Thesmar, David, 2011. "Stock price fragility," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 102(3), pages 471-490.
    15. repec:oup:jfinec:v:15:y:2017:i:1:p:36-61. is not listed on IDEAS
    16. Ciamac C. Moallemi & Mehmet Sağlam, 2013. "OR Forum---The Cost of Latency in High-Frequency Trading," Operations Research, INFORMS, vol. 61(5), pages 1070-1086, October.
    17. Cenesizoglu, Tolga & Grass, Gunnar, 2018. "Bid- and ask-side liquidity in the NYSE limit order book," Journal of Financial Markets, Elsevier, vol. 38(C), pages 14-38.
    18. Stefan Arping, 2015. "Banks and Market Liquidity," Tinbergen Institute Discussion Papers 15-020/IV, Tinbergen Institute.
    19. Chen, Jingnan & Feng, Liming & Peng, Jiming, 2015. "Optimal deleveraging with nonlinear temporary price impact," European Journal of Operational Research, Elsevier, vol. 244(1), pages 240-247.
    20. Gao, Xiaohui & Ritter, Jay R., 2010. "The marketing of seasoned equity offerings," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 97(1), pages 33-52, July.
    21. Sağlam, Mehmet & Moallemi, Ciamac C. & Sotiropoulos, Michael G., 2019. "Short-term trading skill: An analysis of investor heterogeneity and execution quality," Journal of Financial Markets, Elsevier, vol. 42(C), pages 1-28.
    22. Sanjiv Das & Paul Hanouna, 2010. "Run lengths and liquidity," Annals of Operations Research, Springer, vol. 176(1), pages 127-152, April.
    23. Kurt F. Lewis & Francis A. Longstaff & Lubomir Petrasek, 2017. "Asset Mispricing," NBER Working Papers 23231, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.

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