IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/a/bla/jfinan/v46y1991i4p1273-89.html
   My bibliography  Save this article

Convertible Debt: Corporate Call Policy and Voluntary Conversion

Author

Listed:
  • Asquith, Paul
  • Mullins, David W, Jr

Abstract

This paper examines why, in contrast to the predictions of finance theory, firms do not call convertible debt when the conversion price exceeds the call price. The empirical results suggest that the principal reason is because some firms enjoy an advantage of paying less in after-tax interest than they would pay in dividends were the bond converted. This cash flow incentive is the inverse of an investor's incentive to convert voluntarily if the converted dividends are greater than the bond's coupon. Because of taxation, however, the decisions by investors and firms are not symmetric, and there exist bonds which the firm may not call and an investor will not convert. The results also find that voluntary conversion is significantly related to both the conversion price and the differential between the coupon and the dividends on the converted stock. Copyright 1991 by American Finance Association.

Suggested Citation

  • Asquith, Paul & Mullins, David W, Jr, 1991. " Convertible Debt: Corporate Call Policy and Voluntary Conversion," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 46(4), pages 1273-1289, September.
  • Handle: RePEc:bla:jfinan:v:46:y:1991:i:4:p:1273-89
    as

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL: http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0022-1082%28199109%2946%3A4%3C1273%3ACDCCPA%3E2.0.CO%3B2-Y&origin=repec
    File Function: full text
    Download Restriction: Access to full text is restricted to JSTOR subscribers. See http://www.jstor.org for details.

    As the access to this document is restricted, you may want to search for a different version of it.

    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Grossman, Sanford J, 1988. "An Analysis of the Implications for Stock and Futures Price Volatility of Program Trading and Dynamic Hedging Strategies," The Journal of Business, University of Chicago Press, vol. 61(3), pages 275-298, July.
    2. Cohen, Kalman J, et al, 1981. "Transaction Costs, Order Placement Strategy, and Existence of the Bid-Ask Spread," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 89(2), pages 287-305, April.
    3. Glosten, Lawrence R. & Milgrom, Paul R., 1985. "Bid, ask and transaction prices in a specialist market with heterogeneously informed traders," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 14(1), pages 71-100, March.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Citations

    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.
    as


    Cited by:

    1. King, Tao-Hsien Dolly & Mauer, David C., 2014. "Determinants of corporate call policy for convertible bonds," Journal of Corporate Finance, Elsevier, vol. 24(C), pages 112-134.
    2. Mayers, David, 1998. "Why firms issue convertible bonds: the matching of financial and real investment options," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 47(1), pages 83-102, January.
    3. Yue Kwok & Lixin Wu, 2000. "Effects of Callable Feature on Early Exercise Policy," Review of Derivatives Research, Springer, vol. 4(2), pages 189-211, May.
    4. Pascal François & Georges Hubner & Nicolas Papageorgiou, 2009. "A Dynamic Model of Risk-Shifting Incentives with Convertible Debt," Cahiers de recherche 0930, CIRPEE.
    5. Mark C. Hutchinson & Liam A. Gallagher, 2010. "Convertible Bond Arbitrage: Risk and Return," Journal of Business Finance & Accounting, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 37(1-2), pages 206-241.
    6. Bruce D. Grundy & Patrick Verwijmeren, 2012. "Dividend-Protected Convertible Bonds and the Disappearance," Tinbergen Institute Discussion Papers 12-060/2/DSF37, Tinbergen Institute.
    7. Finnerty, John D., 2015. "Valuing convertible bonds and the option to exchange bonds for stock," Journal of Corporate Finance, Elsevier, vol. 31(C), pages 91-115.
    8. Bechmann, Ken L. & Lunde, Asger & Zebedee, Allan A., 2014. "In- and out-of-the-money convertible bond calls: Signaling or price pressure?," Journal of Corporate Finance, Elsevier, vol. 24(C), pages 135-148.
    9. Rastad, Mahdi, 2016. "Capital structure pre-balancing: Evidence from convertible bonds," Journal of Corporate Finance, Elsevier, vol. 41(C), pages 43-65.
    10. Stein, Jeremy C., 1992. "Convertible bonds as backdoor equity financing," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 32(1), pages 3-21, August.
    11. F. Andre-le Pogamp & F. Moraux, 2004. "Valuing callable convertible bonds: a reduced approach," Applied Financial Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, pages 743-749.
    12. Altintig, Z. Ayca & Butler, Alexander W., 2005. "Are they still called late? The effect of notice period on calls of convertible bonds," Journal of Corporate Finance, Elsevier, vol. 11(1-2), pages 337-350, March.
    13. Korkeamaki, Timo P., 2005. "Effects of law on corporate financing practices--international evidence from convertible bond issues," Journal of Corporate Finance, Elsevier, vol. 11(5), pages 809-831, October.
    14. Jalan, P. & Barone-Adesi, G., 1995. "Equity financing and corporate convertible bond policy," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 19(2), pages 187-206, May.
    15. Grundy, Bruce D. & Veld, Chris & Verwijmeren, Patrick & Zabolotnyuk, Yuriy, 2014. "Why are conversion-forcing call announcements associated with negative wealth effects?," Journal of Corporate Finance, Elsevier, vol. 24(C), pages 149-157.
    16. Kadapakkam, Palani-Rajan & Tang, Alex P., 1996. "Stock reaction to dividend savings of convertible preferred calls: Free cash flow or price pressure effects?," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 20(10), pages 1759-1773, December.
    17. Kim, Yong O. & Kallberg, Jarl, 1998. "Convertible calls and corporate taxes under asymmetric information," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 22(1), pages 19-40, January.
    18. Masaki Mori & Joseph Ooi & Woei Wong, 2014. "Do Investor Demand and Market Timing Affect Convertible Debt Issuance Decisions by REITs?," The Journal of Real Estate Finance and Economics, Springer, vol. 49(4), pages 524-550, November.
    19. Bajo, Emanuele & Barbi, Massimiliano, 2012. "The role of time value in convertible bond call policy," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 36(2), pages 550-563.
    20. Hua Yu, 1994. "Participation Financing as a Solution to the Agency Problem of Perk Consumption in Small Firms," Journal of Entrepreneurial Finance, Pepperdine University, Graziadio School of Business and Management, vol. 3(3), pages 215-227, Fall.
    21. Ali Bora Yigibasioglu & Carol Alexandra, 2004. "An Uncertain Volatility Explanation for Delayed Calls of Convertible Bonds," ICMA Centre Discussion Papers in Finance icma-dp2004-07, Henley Business School, Reading University.
    22. Lim, Terence & Lo, Andrew W. & Merton, Robert C. & Scholes, Myron S., 2006. "The Derivatives Sourcebook," Foundations and Trends(R) in Finance, now publishers, vol. 1(5–6), pages 365-572, April.
    23. Krishnaswami, Sudha & Yaman, Devrim, 2008. "The role of convertible bonds in alleviating contracting costs," The Quarterly Review of Economics and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 48(4), pages 792-816, November.
    24. Sarkar, Sudipto, 2003. "Early and late calls of convertible bonds: Theory and evidence," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 27(7), pages 1349-1374, July.

    More about this item

    Statistics

    Access and download statistics

    Corrections

    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:bla:jfinan:v:46:y:1991:i:4:p:1273-89. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Wiley-Blackwell Digital Licensing) or (Christopher F. Baum). General contact details of provider: http://edirc.repec.org/data/afaaaea.html .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    We have no references for this item. You can help adding them by using this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.