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Raroc At Bank Of America: From Theory To Practice


  • Edward Zaik
  • John Walter
  • Gabriela Retting
  • Christopher James


In 1993, Bank of America's Risk and Capital Analysis Group was charged with the task of developing and instituting a single corporate-wide system to allocate capital to all the bank's activities. Since 1994, that system has been providing quarterly reports of risk-adjusted returns on capital (RAROC) for each of the bank's 37 major business units. By 1995, B of A had also developed the capability to calculate RAROC down to the level of individual products, transactions, and customer relationships. 1996 Morgan Stanley.

Suggested Citation

  • Edward Zaik & John Walter & Gabriela Retting & Christopher James, 1996. "Raroc At Bank Of America: From Theory To Practice," Journal of Applied Corporate Finance, Morgan Stanley, vol. 9(2), pages 83-93.
  • Handle: RePEc:bla:jacrfn:v:9:y:1996:i:2:p:83-93

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    Cited by:

    1. Houston, Joel & James, Christopher & Marcus, David, 1997. "Capital market frictions and the role of internal capital markets in banking," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 46(2), pages 135-164, November.
    2. Froot, Kenneth A. & Stein, Jeremy C., 1998. "Risk management, capital budgeting, and capital structure policy for financial institutions: an integrated approach," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 47(1), pages 55-82, January.
    3. Yoram Landskroner & David Ruthenberg & David Zaken, 2005. "Diversification and Performance in Banking: The Israeli Case," Journal of Financial Services Research, Springer;Western Finance Association, vol. 27(1), pages 27-49, February.
    4. Stoughton, Neal M. & Zechner, Josef, 2007. "Optimal capital allocation using RAROC(TM) and EVA(R)," Journal of Financial Intermediation, Elsevier, vol. 16(3), pages 312-342, July.
    5. R. Jarrow & A. Purnanandam, 2007. "The valuation of a firm’s investment opportunities: a reduced form credit risk perspective," Review of Derivatives Research, Springer, vol. 10(1), pages 39-58, January.
    6. CHATTI, Mohamed Ali & KABLAN, Sandrine & YOUSFI, Ouidad, 2010. "Activity diversification and performance of Islamic banks in Malaysia," MPRA Paper 28348, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    7. repec:prg:jnlpep:v:preprint:id:653:p:1-16 is not listed on IDEAS
    8. Furman, Edward & Landsman, Zinoviy, 2010. "Multivariate Tweedie distributions and some related capital-at-risk analyses," Insurance: Mathematics and Economics, Elsevier, vol. 46(2), pages 351-361, April.
    9. Michael Pohl, 2010. "Auswirkungen der Risikomessmethode auf die Anlageperformance – Eine empirische Untersuchung für den Fall definierter Risikolimite in der Planungsrechnung anhand des DAX," Metrika: International Journal for Theoretical and Applied Statistics, Springer, vol. 21(1), pages 59-80, June.
    10. Peter Miu & Bogie Ozdemir & Evren Cubukgil & Michael Giesinger, 2016. "Determining Hurdle Rate and Capital Allocation in Credit Portfolio Management," Journal of Financial Services Research, Springer;Western Finance Association, vol. 50(2), pages 243-273, October.
    11. Boot, Arnoud W. A. & Schmeits, Anjolein, 2000. "Market Discipline and Incentive Problems in Conglomerate Firms with Applications to Banking," Journal of Financial Intermediation, Elsevier, vol. 9(3), pages 240-273, July.
    12. Gann, Philipp, 2008. "Der Internal Capital Adequacy Assessment Process als regulatorischer Treiber eines aktiven Kreditportfoliomanagements," Discussion Papers in Business Administration 4831, University of Munich, Munich School of Management.
    13. Baule, Rainer, 2014. "Allocation of risk capital on an internal market," European Journal of Operational Research, Elsevier, vol. 234(1), pages 186-196.
    14. Kulpmann, Mathias, 2000. "Incentives in an international bank," Journal of Multinational Financial Management, Elsevier, vol. 10(3-4), pages 481-493, December.
    15. Judy Hsu & Kuo-An Li, 2013. "Performance assessments of Taiwan’s financial holding companies," Journal of Productivity Analysis, Springer, vol. 40(1), pages 137-151, August.
    16. Glaser, Markus & Riepe, Jan, 2014. "Internal capital market studies in empirical banking: Biases due to usage of assets instead of risk capital?," Finance Research Letters, Elsevier, vol. 11(1), pages 47-53.
    17. repec:prg:jnlpep:v:2018:y:2018:i:2:id:653:p:232-247 is not listed on IDEAS
    18. Olivier Bruno & André Cartapanis & Eric Nasica, 2013. "Bank leverage, financial fragility and prudential regulation," Working Papers halshs-00853701, HAL.
    19. Ralph C. Kimball, 1997. "Innovations in performance measurement in banking," New England Economic Review, Federal Reserve Bank of Boston, issue May, pages 23-38.
    20. Erel, Isil & Myers, Stewart C. & Read, James A., 2015. "A theory of risk capital," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 118(3), pages 620-635.
    21. Ishikawa, Tatsuya & Yamai, Yasuhiro & Ieda, Akira, 2003. "On the Risk Capital Framework of Financial Institutions," Monetary and Economic Studies, Institute for Monetary and Economic Studies, Bank of Japan, vol. 21(3), pages 83-105, October.
    22. Prokopczuk, Marcel & Rachev, Svetlozar T. & Schindlmayr, Gero & Truck, Stefan, 2007. "Quantifying risk in the electricity business: A RAROC-based approach," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 29(5), pages 1033-1049, September.
    23. Rungporn Roengpitya & Nikola Tarashev & Kostas Tsatsaronis, 2014. "Bank business models," BIS Quarterly Review, Bank for International Settlements, December.
    24. Stoughton, Neal & Zechner, Josef, 1999. "Optimal Capital Allocation Using RAROC And EVA," CEPR Discussion Papers 2344, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
    25. Furman, Edward & Landsman, Zinoviy, 2005. "Risk capital decomposition for a multivariate dependent gamma portfolio," Insurance: Mathematics and Economics, Elsevier, vol. 37(3), pages 635-649, December.

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