Fragmentation, incomes and jobs: an analysis of European competitiveness
Increasing fragmentation of production across borders is changing the nature of international competition. It increasingly plays out at the level of activities within industries, rather than at the level of whole industries. As a result, current measures of competitiveness such as export market shares become less informative for the policy debate and new measures are needed. In this paper we study the links between fragmentation and the creation of income and jobs based on a recent multi-sector input-output model of the world economy. Using this model, we measure the income and jobs in a country that are directly and indirectly related to the production of manufacturing goods, called GVC (global value chain) income and jobs. We find that during 1995-2008 growth in GVC income and jobs is much lower than growth in gross exports in all European countries, in particular Germany and Eastern European countries that rely heavily on imported intermediates. We also find that fragmentation does not necessarily lead to destruction of jobs in advanced countries. The number of GVC jobs located in the manufacturing sector declined, but this was more than compensated for by GVC job creation in supporting services in most EU countries. Actually, in 2008, almost half of the jobs related to global manufacturing production were outside the manufacturing sector. We also find a magnification of comparative advantage of EU countries as there is a shift away from activities in GVC production carried out by low-skilled workers towards those carried out by higher skilled workers. Taken together our results show that a GVC perspective on competitiveness provides new measures that can inform the policy debates on globalisation.
(This abstract was borrowed from another version of this item.)
If you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.
As the access to this document is restricted, you may want to look for a different version under "Related research" (further below) or search for a different version of it.
Volume (Year): 28 (2013)
Issue (Month): 76 (October)
|Contact details of provider:|| Postal: 3rd Floor, 77 Bastwick Street, London EC1V 3PZ|
Phone: +44 (0)20 7183 8801
Fax: +44 (0)20 7183 8820
Web page: http://www.blackwellpublishing.com/journal.asp?ref=0266-4658
More information through EDIRC
Postal:Schackstr. 4, 80539 Munich
Phone: +49 (89) 2180-2748
Fax: +49 (89) 39 73 03
Web page: http://www.cesifo-group.de/portal/page/portal/ifoHome/f-about/f2aboutces
More information through EDIRC
Postal:48 boulevard Jourdan - 75014 Paris
Phone: 01 43 13 63 00
Fax: 01 43 13 63 10
Web page: http://www.pse.ens.fr/
More information through EDIRC
|Order Information:||Web: http://www.blackwellpublishing.com/subs.asp?ref=0266-4658|
References listed on IDEAS
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- David L. Hummels & Jun Ishii & Kei-Mu Yi, 1999.
"The nature and growth of vertical specialization in world trade,"
72, Federal Reserve Bank of New York.
- Hummels, David & Ishii, Jun & Yi, Kei-Mu, 2001. "The nature and growth of vertical specialization in world trade," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 54(1), pages 75-96, June.
- Mary O'Mahony & Marcel P. Timmer, 2009. "Output, Input and Productivity Measures at the Industry Level: The EU KLEMS Database," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 119(538), pages F374-F403, 06.
- Gianmarco I.P. Ottaviano & Daria Taglioni & Filippo di Mauro, 2009. "The euro and the competitiveness of European firms," Economic Policy, CEPR;CES;MSH, vol. 24, pages 5-53, 01.
- Carlo Altomonte & Tommaso Aquilante & Gianmarco Ottaviano, . "The triggers of competitiveness: The EFIGE cross-country report," Blueprints, Bruegel, number 738.
- Robert C. Feenstra & J. Bradford Jensen, 2012.
"Evaluating Estimates of Materials Offshoring from U.S. Manufacturing,"
NBER Working Papers
17916, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Feenstra, Robert C. & Jensen, J. Bradford, 2012. "Evaluating estimates of materials offshoring from US manufacturing," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 117(1), pages 170-173.
- Baldwin, Richard & Venables, Anthony J., 2013.
"Spiders and snakes: Offshoring and agglomeration in the global economy,"
Journal of International Economics,
Elsevier, vol. 90(2), pages 245-254.
- Baldwin, Richard & Venables, Anthony J, 2010. "Spiders and Snakes: Offshoring and Agglomeration in the Global Economy," CEPR Discussion Papers 8163, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
- Richard Baldwin & Anthony Venables, 2010. "Spiders and snakes: offshoring and agglomeration in the global economy," NBER Working Papers 16611, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Fagerberg, Jan, 1988.
Royal Economic Society, vol. 98(391), pages 355-74, June.
- Robert Feenstra, 2003.
"Integration Of Trade And Disintegration Of Production In The Global Economy,"
986, University of California, Davis, Department of Economics.
- Robert C. Feenstra, 1998. "Integration of Trade and Disintegration of Production in the Global Economy," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, vol. 12(4), pages 31-50, Fall.
- Robert C. Feenstra, . "Integration Of Trade And Disintegration Of Production In The Global Economy," Department of Economics 98-06, California Davis - Department of Economics.
- Sinn, Hans-Werner, 2006.
"The pathological export boom and the bazaar effect: How to solve the German puzzle,"
Munich Reprints in Economics
19602, University of Munich, Department of Economics.
- Hans-Werner Sinn, 2006. "The Pathological Export Boom and the Bazaar Effect: How to Solve the German Puzzle," The World Economy, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 29(9), pages 1157-1175, 09.
- Hans-Werner Sinn, 2006. "The Pathological Export Boom and the Bazaar Effect - How to Solve the German Puzzle," CESifo Working Paper Series 1708, CESifo Group Munich.
- Joseph F. Francois & Bernard Hoekman, 2009.
"Services Trade and Policy,"
Economics working papers
2009-03, Department of Economics, Johannes Kepler University Linz, Austria.
- Rudolfs Bems & Robert C. Johnson & Kei-Mu Yi, 2011. "Vertical Linkages and the Collapse of Global Trade," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 101(3), pages 308-12, May.
- Kei-Mu Yi, 2000.
"Can vertical specialization explain the growth of world trade?,"
96, Federal Reserve Bank of New York.
- Kei-Mu Yi, 2003. "Can Vertical Specialization Explain the Growth of World Trade?," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 111(1), pages 52-102, February.
- Robert C. Feenstra, 2010. "Offshoring in the Global Economy: Microeconomic Structure and Macroeconomic Implications," MIT Press Books, The MIT Press, edition 1, volume 1, number 0262013835, December.
- Robert E. Baldwin & Robert E. Lipsey & J. David Richards, 1998. "Geography and Ownership as Bases for Economic Accounting," NBER Books, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc, number bald98-1.
- Andrei A. Levchenko & Jing Zhang, 2012.
"Comparative advantage and the welfare impact of European integration,"
CEPR;CES;MSH, vol. 27(72), pages 567-602, October.
- Andrei A. Levchenko & Jing Zhang, 2012. "Comparative Advantage and the Welfare Impact of European Integration," Working Papers 626, Research Seminar in International Economics, University of Michigan.
- Jing Zhang & Andrei A. Levchenko, 2011. "Comparative Advantage and the Welfare Impact of European Integration," 2011 Meeting Papers 819, Society for Economic Dynamics.
- Andrei A. Levchenko & Jing Zhang, 2012. "Comparative Advantage and the Welfare Impact of European Integration," NBER Working Papers 18061, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Johnson, Robert C. & Noguera, Guillermo, 2012. "Accounting for intermediates: Production sharing and trade in value added," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 86(2), pages 224-236.
- Filippo di Mauro & Katrin Forster, 2008.
"Globalisation and the competitiveness of the euro area,"
Occasional Paper Series
97, European Central Bank.
- Filippo Di Mauro & Katrin Forster, . "Globalisation and the competitiveness of the Euro area," Working Papers 5, Department of the Treasury, Ministry of the Economy and of Finance.
- Marin, Dalia, 2006.
"A New International Division of Labour in Europe: Outsourcing and Offshoring to Eastern Europe,"
CEPR Discussion Papers
5447, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
- Dalia Marin, 2006. "A New International Division of Labor in Europe: Outsourcing and Offshoring to Eastern Europe," Journal of the European Economic Association, MIT Press, vol. 4(2-3), pages 612-622, 04-05.
- Marin, Dalia, 2006. "A new international division of labor in Europe: Outsourcing and offshoring to Eastern Europe," Munich Reprints in Economics 19229, University of Munich, Department of Economics.
- Marin, Dalia, 2005. "A New International Division of Labor in Europe: Outsourcing and Offshoring to Eastern Europe," Discussion Paper Series of SFB/TR 15 Governance and the Efficiency of Economic Systems 80, Free University of Berlin, Humboldt University of Berlin, University of Bonn, University of Mannheim, University of Munich.
- Daniel Trefler & Susan Chun Zhu, 2005.
"The Structure of Factor Content Predictions,"
NBER Working Papers
11221, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Timothy Sturgeon & Johannes Van Biesebroeck & Gary Gereffi, 2008. "Value chains, networks and clusters: reframing the global automotive industry," Journal of Economic Geography, Oxford University Press, vol. 8(3), pages 297-321, May.
- repec:dgr:rugggd:gd-135 is not listed on IDEAS
- Erik Dietzenbacher & Bart Los & Robert Stehrer & Marcel Timmer & Gaaitzen de Vries, 2013. "The Construction Of World Input-Output Tables In The Wiod Project," Economic Systems Research, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 25(1), pages 71-98, March.
- Vries, Gaaitzen J. de & Timmer, Marcel & Los, Bart, 2013. "Globalization or Regionalization? A New Approach to Measure International Fragmentation of Value Chains," GGDC Research Memorandum GD-138, Groningen Growth and Development Centre, University of Groningen.
- Marcel P. Timmer & Abdul Azeez Erumban & Bart Los & Robert Stehrer & Gaaitzen J. de Vries, 2014.
"Slicing Up Global Value Chains,"
Journal of Economic Perspectives,
American Economic Association, vol. 28(2), pages 99-118, Spring.
- Gene M. Grossman & Esteban Rossi-Hansberg, 2008.
"Trading Tasks: A Simple Theory of Offshoring,"
American Economic Review,
American Economic Association, vol. 98(5), pages 1978-97, December.
- Koopman, Robert & Wang, Zhi & Wei, Shang-Jin, 2012. "Estimating domestic content in exports when processing trade is pervasive," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 99(1), pages 178-189.
- repec:dgr:rugggd:gd-138 is not listed on IDEAS
- Robert Inklaar & Marcel P. Timmer & Bart van Ark, 2008. "Market services productivity across Europe and the US," Economic Policy, CEPR;CES;MSH, vol. 23, pages 139-194, 01.
- Jason Dedrick & Kenneth L. Kraemer & Greg Linden, 2010. "Who profits from innovation in global value chains? A study of the iPod and notebook PCs," Industrial and Corporate Change, Oxford University Press, vol. 19(1), pages 81-116, February.
When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:bla:ecpoli:v:28:y:2013:i:76:p:613-661. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Wiley-Blackwell Digital Licensing)or (Christopher F. Baum)
If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.
If the full references list an item that is present in RePEc, but the system did not link to it, you can help with this form.
If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.
Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.