IDEAS home Printed from
   My bibliography  Save this article

Joint Variance-Ratio Tests of the Martingale Hypothesis for Exchange Rates


  • Fong, Wai Mun
  • Koh, Seng Kee
  • Ouliaris, Sam


There is considerable interest as to whether exchange races behave like martingales. Liu and He (1991) test the martingale hypothesis for exchange rates using the variance ratio methodology of Lo and MacKinlay (1988). They find that exchange rates have violated martingale property since the inception of floating rates in 1973. However, Liu and He did not consider the joint implications of their tests, In this paper, we reassess the martingale hypothesis for exchange rates using the joint tests developed by Hochberg (1974) and Richardson and Smith (1991). Contrary to the findings of Liu He, the joint tests indicate that the martingale model worked quite well for exchange rates in the recent years of the floating rate regime.

Suggested Citation

  • Fong, Wai Mun & Koh, Seng Kee & Ouliaris, Sam, 1997. "Joint Variance-Ratio Tests of the Martingale Hypothesis for Exchange Rates," Journal of Business & Economic Statistics, American Statistical Association, vol. 15(1), pages 51-59, January.
  • Handle: RePEc:bes:jnlbes:v:15:y:1997:i:1:p:51-59

    Download full text from publisher

    To our knowledge, this item is not available for download. To find whether it is available, there are three options:
    1. Check below whether another version of this item is available online.
    2. Check on the provider's web page whether it is in fact available.
    3. Perform a search for a similarly titled item that would be available.

    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Hansen, Bruce E., 2000. "Testing for structural change in conditional models," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 97(1), pages 93-115, July.
    2. Andrews, Donald W K & Ploberger, Werner, 1994. "Optimal Tests When a Nuisance Parameter Is Present Only under the Alternative," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 62(6), pages 1383-1414, November.
    3. Adda, Jerome & Gonzalo, Jesus, 1996. "P-Values for non-standard distributions with an application to the DF test," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 50(2), pages 155-160, February.
    4. Andrews, Donald W K, 1993. "Tests for Parameter Instability and Structural Change with Unknown Change Point," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 61(4), pages 821-856, July.
    5. Hansen, Bruce E, 2002. "Tests for Parameter Instability in Regressions with I(1) Processes," Journal of Business & Economic Statistics, American Statistical Association, vol. 20(1), pages 45-59, January.
    6. MacKinnon, James G, 1994. "Approximate Asymptotic Distribution Functions for Unit-Root and Cointegration Tests," Journal of Business & Economic Statistics, American Statistical Association, vol. 12(2), pages 167-176, April.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)


    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.

    Cited by:

    1. Fahad Almudhaf, 2014. "Testing for random walk behaviour in CIVETS exchange rates," Applied Economics Letters, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 21(1), pages 60-63, January.
    2. Peter C. B. Phillips & Sainan Jin, 2014. "Testing the Martingale Hypothesis," Journal of Business & Economic Statistics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 32(4), pages 537-554, October.
    3. Jean-Marie Dufour & Lynda Khalaf & Marcel Voia, 2013. "Finite-sample resampling-based combined hypothesis tests, with applications to serial correlation and predictability," CIRANO Working Papers 2013s-40, CIRANO.
    4. Luger, Richard, 2003. "Exact non-parametric tests for a random walk with unknown drift under conditional heteroscedasticity," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 115(2), pages 259-276, August.
    5. Charles, Amélie & Darné, Olivier & Kim, Jae H., 2012. "Exchange-rate return predictability and the adaptive markets hypothesis: Evidence from major foreign exchange rates," Journal of International Money and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 31(6), pages 1607-1626.
    6. Fong, Wai Mun, 2003. "Time reversibility tests of volume-volatility dynamics for stock returns," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 81(1), pages 39-45, October.
    7. Shyh-wei Chen, 2009. "Random walks in asian foreign exchange markets:evidence from new multiple variance ratio tests," Economics Bulletin, AccessEcon, vol. 29(2), pages 1296-1307.
    8. Yamin Ahmad & Ivan Paya, 2014. "Temporal Aggregation of Random Walk Processes and Implications for Asset Prices," Working Papers 14-01, UW-Whitewater, Department of Economics.
    9. Bekiros, Stelios D., 2014. "Exchange rates and fundamentals: Co-movement, long-run relationships and short-run dynamics," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 39(C), pages 117-134.
    10. Kim, Jae H. & Shamsuddin, Abul, 2008. "Are Asian stock markets efficient? Evidence from new multiple variance ratio tests," Journal of Empirical Finance, Elsevier, vol. 15(3), pages 518-532, June.
    11. Eduardo José Araújo Lima & Benjamin Miranda Tabak, 2008. "Exchange Rate Dynamics and the Relationship between the Random Walk Hypothesis and Official Interventions," Working Papers Series 173, Central Bank of Brazil, Research Department.
    12. Charles, Amélie & Darné, Olivier & Fouilloux, Jessica, 2011. "Testing the martingale difference hypothesis in CO2 emission allowances," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 28(1-2), pages 27-35, January.
    13. Amelie Charles & Olivier Darne, 2009. "Testing for Random Walk Behavior in Euro Exchange Rates," Economie Internationale, CEPII research center, issue 119, pages 25-45.
    14. Al-Khazali, Osamah M. & Pyun, Chong Soo & Kim, Daewon, 2012. "Are exchange rate movements predictable in Asia-Pacific markets? Evidence of random walk and martingale difference processes," International Review of Economics & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 21(1), pages 221-231.
    15. Jorge Belaire-Franch & Stanley McGreal & Kwaku K. Opong & James R. Webb, 2007. "A Nonparametric Variance-Ratio Test of the Behavior of U.K. Real Estate and Construction Indices," International Real Estate Review, Asian Real Estate Society, vol. 10(2), pages 94-112.
    16. Yilmaz, Kamil, 2003. "Martingale Property of Exchange Rates and Central Bank Interventions," Journal of Business & Economic Statistics, American Statistical Association, vol. 21(3), pages 383-395, July.
    17. Kaltenbrunner, Annina & Nissanke, Machiko, 2009. "The Case for an Intermediate Exchange Rate Regime with Endogenizing Market Structures and Capital Mobility," WIDER Working Paper Series 029, World Institute for Development Economic Research (UNU-WIDER).
    18. Jorge Belaire-Franch & Kwaku Opong, 2005. "A Variance Ratio Test of the Behaviour of Some FTSE Equity Indices Using Ranks and Signs," Review of Quantitative Finance and Accounting, Springer, vol. 24(1), pages 93-107, January.
    19. Amélie Charles & Olivier Darné, 2009. "Variance-Ratio Tests Of Random Walk: An Overview," Journal of Economic Surveys, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 23(3), pages 503-527, July.
    20. Belaire-Franch, Jorge & Opong, Kwaku K., 2005. "Some evidence of random walk behavior of Euro exchange rates using ranks and signs," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 29(7), pages 1631-1643, July.
    21. Young-Sook Lee & Tae-Hwan Kim & Paul Newbold, 2005. "Revisiting the Martingale hypothesis for exchange rates," Money Macro and Finance (MMF) Research Group Conference 2005 19, Money Macro and Finance Research Group.
    22. Andreas Lindemann & Christian L. Dunis & Paulo Lisboa, 2005. "Extending the variance ratio test to visualize structure in data: an application to the S&P 100 Index," Applied Financial Economics Letters, Taylor and Francis Journals, vol. 1(3), pages 189-197, May.
    23. Kin Lam & May Chun Mei Wong & Wing-Keung Wong, 2005. "New Variance Ratio Tests to Identify Random Walk from the General Mean Reversion Model," Departmental Working Papers wp0514, National University of Singapore, Department of Economics.

    More about this item


    Access and download statistics


    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:bes:jnlbes:v:15:y:1997:i:1:p:51-59. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Christopher F. Baum). General contact details of provider: .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    We have no references for this item. You can help adding them by using this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.