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Smallholders and changing markets: Observations on regional level


  • Csaba Csáki

    () (Corvinus University of Budapest, Department of Agricultural Economics and Rural Development, Institute of Environmental Studies, Faculty of Business Administration, Budapest, Hungary)

  • Csaba Forgács

    () (Corvinus University of Budapest, Department of Agricultural Economics and Rural Development, Institute of Environmental Studies, Faculty of Business Administration, Budapest, Hungary)


This article intends to provide an analysis of evolving relations in the food chain and their impacts upon small farmers based on the research conducted in four countries in the framework of Regoverning Markets (RM) Project. Each country represents a specific path and level of development. Both Hungary and Poland are quite advanced in the concentration of the retail sector and food processing, while Bulgaria and Russia are less advanced in changing the vertical structure of food production. The results of research conducted in four countries are presented here in a shortened version. Conclusions in this summary reflect mainly the information gathered in the four countries and have to be treated with caution regarding the rest of the region.

Suggested Citation

  • Csaba Csáki & Csaba Forgács, 2008. "Smallholders and changing markets: Observations on regional level," Society and Economy, Akadémiai Kiadó, Hungary, vol. 30(1), pages 5-28, June.
  • Handle: RePEc:aka:soceco:v:30:y:2008:i:1:p:5-28

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. White, Halbert, 1980. "A Heteroskedasticity-Consistent Covariance Matrix Estimator and a Direct Test for Heteroskedasticity," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 48(4), pages 817-838, May.
    2. Light, Audrey, 2001. "In-School Work Experience and the Returns to Schooling," Journal of Labor Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 19(1), pages 65-93, January.
    3. Bedi, Arjun S. & Gaston, Noel, 1999. "Using variation in schooling availability to estimate educational returns for Honduras," Economics of Education Review, Elsevier, vol. 18(1), pages 107-116, February.
    4. Brunello, Giorgio & Miniaci, Raffaele, 1999. "The economic returns to schooling for Italian men. An evaluation based on instrumental variables1," Labour Economics, Elsevier, vol. 6(4), pages 509-519, November.
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    Cited by:

    1. Szymanowski, Wacław, 0. "Wpływ Procesów Globalizacyjnych Na Kierunki Rozwoju Form Handlu Żywnością W Polsce," Village and Agriculture (WieÅ› i Rolnictwo), Polish Academy of Sciences (IRWiR PAN), Institute of Rural and Agricultural Development, issue 4.
    2. Jan Falkowski & Pavel Ciaian, 2016. "Factors Supporting the Development of Producer Organizations and their Impacts in the Light of Ongoing Changes in Food Supply Chains: A Literature Review," JRC Working Papers JRC101617, Joint Research Centre (Seville site).


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