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La convergence des activités innovantes en Europe. Les enseignements de l’économétrie spatiale appliquée à l’histoire du temps présent

  • Claude DIEBOLT
  • Karine PELLIER

Nous analysons les contributions des débordements géographiques de connaissance sur l’activité innovante et le processus de convergence des régions européennes sur la période 1981-2001. L’application des outils de l’économétrie spatiale (ANSELIN, 1988) à la distribution des demandes de brevets déposées à l’Office Européen des Brevets révèle la présence d’effets spatiaux (auto-corrélation et hétérogénéité spatiale) que nous intégrons successivement dans notre analyse de la convergence. L’estimation, dans un premier temps, d’un modèle avec auto-corrélation spatiale des erreurs montre que les effets de débordement géographique contribuent favorablement au processus de rattrapage des régions les moins performantes. Dans un second temps, l’hétérogénéité spatiale est prise en compte et modélisée par une spécification à deux régimes spatiaux, de type « centre-périphérie ». Finalement, nos résultats permettent de conclure que le processus de convergence globale mis en évidence masque des disparités au sein des régions européennes, où seulement les régions appartenant au centre de l’Europe convergent.

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Article provided by Association Française de Cliométrie (AFC) in its journal Economies et Sociétés (Serie 'Histoire Economique Quantitative').

Volume (Year): (2009)
Issue (Month): 40 (May)
Pages: 805-831

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Handle: RePEc:afc:ecosoc:y:2009:i:40:p:805-831
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