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Self-selection into Exports: Productivity and/or Innovation?


  • Juan A. Máñez-Castillejo
  • María E. Rochina-Barrachina
  • Juan A. Sanchis-Llopis


Recent research has related the firm decision to export with firm innovation activities and productivity. The aim of this paper is to disentangle the direct and indirect links through which self-selection into exports, coming both from productivity and innovation, may operate. For this purpose we use Spanish manufacturing firm data for the period 1990 – 2000, drawn from the Encuesta sobre Estrategias Empresariales. The main results we obtain can be summarized as follows. First, there is a self-selection into exports direct effect coming from productivity. Second, there is also a self-selection indirect effect into exports stemming from productivity to the probability of exporting through process innovations: the higher the productivity the higher the probability of introducing process innovations and, therefore, the likelihood of starting to export. Third, there is a self-selection into exporting indirect effect of process innovations that operates through productivity: process innovations increase productivity and, therefore, the probability to export.

Suggested Citation

  • Juan A. Máñez-Castillejo & María E. Rochina-Barrachina & Juan A. Sanchis-Llopis, 2009. "Self-selection into Exports: Productivity and/or Innovation?," Applied Economics Quarterly (formerly: Konjunkturpolitik), Duncker & Humblot, Berlin, vol. 55(3), pages 219-242.
  • Handle: RePEc:aeq:aeqaeq:v55_y2009_i3_q3_p219-242

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    Cited by:

    1. Movahedi, Mohammad & Shahbazi, Kiumars & Gaussens, Olivier, 2017. "Innovation and willingness to export: Is there an effect of conscious self-selection?," Economics - The Open-Access, Open-Assessment E-Journal, Kiel Institute for the World Economy (IfW), vol. 11, pages 1-22.
    2. Flora Bellone & Catherine Laffineur & Sophie Pommet, 2020. "Public Aid for Born Globals: A Diagnostic for the French Economy," GREDEG Working Papers 2020-44, Groupe de REcherche en Droit, Economie, Gestion (GREDEG CNRS), Université Côte d'Azur, France.
    3. Baum, Christopher F & Lööf, Hans & Stephan, Andreas & Viklund-Ros, Ingrid, 2020. "The impact of offshoring on innovation and productivity: Evidence from Swedish manufacturing firms," Working Paper Series in Economics and Institutions of Innovation 486, Royal Institute of Technology, CESIS - Centre of Excellence for Science and Innovation Studies.
    4. Mercè Sala-Ríos & Mariona Farré-Perdiguer & Teresa Torres-Solé, 2020. "Exporting and Firms’ Performance—What about Cooperatives? Evidence from Spain," Sustainability, MDPI, Open Access Journal, vol. 12(20), pages 1-22, October.
    5. Mohammad Movahedi & Olivier Gaussens, 2011. "Innovation, productivité et exportation : Y-a-t-il un effet d'auto-sélection consciente? Une étude empirique sur les PMI de basse-Normandie," Economics Working Paper Archive (University of Rennes 1 & University of Caen) 201123, Center for Research in Economics and Management (CREM), University of Rennes 1, University of Caen and CNRS.
    6. Movahedi, Mohammad & Gaussens, Olivier, 2011. "Innovation, productivity, and export: Evidence from SMEs in Lower Normandy, France," MPRA Paper 40443, University Library of Munich, Germany, revised 07 Jun 2012.
    7. Gómez, Jaime & Vargas, Pilar, 2012. "Intangible resources and technology adoption in manufacturing firms," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 41(9), pages 1607-1619.
    8. Christopher F. Baum & Hans Lööf & Andreas Stephan & Ingrid Viklund-Ros, 2020. "The impact of offshoring on productivity and innovation: Evidence from Swedish manufacturing firms," Boston College Working Papers in Economics 1014, Boston College Department of Economics, revised 19 Apr 2021.
    9. Naqeeb Ur Rehman, 2017. "Self-selection and learning-by-exporting hypotheses: micro-level evidence," Eurasian Economic Review, Springer;Eurasia Business and Economics Society, vol. 7(1), pages 133-160, April.

    More about this item


    self-selection; exports; productivity; innovation; persistence;
    All these keywords.

    JEL classification:

    • F1 - International Economics - - Trade
    • L1 - Industrial Organization - - Market Structure, Firm Strategy, and Market Performance
    • C3 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Multiple or Simultaneous Equation Models; Multiple Variables


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