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Intra- and Extra-Euro Area Import Demand for Manufactures


  • Robert Anderton
  • Badi H. Baltagi
  • Frauke Skudelny
  • Nuno Sousa


The aim of this paper is to improve our understanding of the key determinants of intra- and extra-euro area imports. Using a simultaneous equation estimation framework, and pooling the data across nine euro area countries as an approximation of the euro area, we estimate intra- and extra-euro area import demand functions and impose various restrictions within and across equations. We find that there are significant substitution effects btween intra- and extra-euro area imports due to changes in their relative prices, while exchange rate volatility decreases trade vis-à-vis regions characterised by high volatility and leads to substitution of trade away from higher-volatility regions towards lower-volatility regions.

Suggested Citation

  • Robert Anderton & Badi H. Baltagi & Frauke Skudelny & Nuno Sousa, 2007. "Intra- and Extra-Euro Area Import Demand for Manufactures," Applied Economics Quarterly (formerly: Konjunkturpolitik), Duncker & Humblot, Berlin, vol. 53(3), pages 221-241.
  • Handle: RePEc:aeq:aeqaeq:v53_y2007_i3_q3_p221-241

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Phillips, Peter C B & Xiao, Zhijie, 1998. " A Primer on Unit Root Testing," Journal of Economic Surveys, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 12(5), pages 423-469, December.
    2. Kenen, Peter B & Rodrik, Dani, 1986. "Measuring and Analyzing the Effects of Short-term Volatility in Real Exchange Rates," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 68(2), pages 311-315, May.
    3. Hooper, Peter & Kohlhagen, Steven W., 1978. "The effect of exchange rate uncertainty on the prices and volume of international trade," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 8(4), pages 483-511, November.
    4. Andrew K. Rose, 2000. "One money, one market: the effect of common currencies on trade," Economic Policy, CEPR;CES;MSH, vol. 15(30), pages 7-46, April.
    5. Kinal, T & Lahiri, K, 1993. "On the Estimation of Simultaneous-Equations Error-Components Models with an Application to a Model of Developing Country Foreign Trade," Journal of Applied Econometrics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 8(1), pages 81-92, Jan.-Marc.
    6. Hartmann, Philipp, 1998. "The Currency Denomination of World Trade after European Monetary Union," Journal of the Japanese and International Economies, Elsevier, vol. 12(4), pages 424-454, December.
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    Cited by:

    1. Baldwin, Richard & Taglioni, Daria, 2006. "Gravity for Dummies and Dummies for Gravity Equations," CEPR Discussion Papers 5850, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
    2. Paul de Grauwe & Francesco Paolo Mongelli, 2005. "Endogeneities of Optimum Currency Areas: What brings Countries Sharing a Single Currency Closer together?," Working Papers de Economia (Economics Working Papers) 29, Departamento de Economia, Gestão e Engenharia Industrial, Universidade de Aveiro.
    3. Tkačevs, Olegs & Christodoulopoulou, Styliani & Bobeica, Elena, 2016. "The role of price and cost competitiveness for intra- and extra-euro area trade of euro area countries," Working Paper Series 1941, European Central Bank.
    4. Heike Joebges & Evelyn Herrmann, 2008. "Euro area exports and imports: Do determinants of intra- and extra-EMU trade differ?," IMK Working Paper 08-2008, IMK at the Hans Boeckler Foundation, Macroeconomic Policy Institute.
    5. Dieppe, Alistair & Warmedinger, Thomas, 2007. "Modelling intra- and extra-area trade substitution and exchange rate pass-through in the euro area," Working Paper Series 760, European Central Bank.

    More about this item


    intra- and extra-euro area imports; substitution; trade integration; three stage least squares;

    JEL classification:

    • F10 - International Economics - - Trade - - - General
    • F15 - International Economics - - Trade - - - Economic Integration


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