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Patents and R&D, An Econometric Investigation Using Applications for German, European and US Patents by German Companies

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  • Georg Licht
  • Konrad Zoz

Abstract

Based on the data of the first wave of the Mannheim Innovation panel, this paper explores the link between R&D expenditures and patents. Our data allow a detailed analysis of the firm size distribution of R&D and patent applications at different patent offices. It is shown that the share of R&D performing firms is stictly increasing wih firm size. The share of firms applying for patents shows an even steeper increase with firm size. Moreover, large firms are more likely apply for patents in more than one country. The home patent office appears especially important for small firms. Using various count data models, the paper explores the relationship between R&D and patents at the firm level. We carefully test several distributional assumptions for count data models. A negative binomial hurdle model seems to be the most appropriate count data model for our data as the decision to patent inventions and the productivity of R&D are ruled by different mechanisms. Our estimates point towards significant returns to scale of R&D. Furthermore, the empirical results can be interpreted towards minor and insignificant spillover effects. Even after controlling for a variety of firm characteristics, firm size exhibits a large effect on the propensity to patent.

Suggested Citation

  • Georg Licht & Konrad Zoz, 1998. "Patents and R&D, An Econometric Investigation Using Applications for German, European and US Patents by German Companies," Annals of Economics and Statistics, GENES, issue 49-50, pages 329-360.
  • Handle: RePEc:adr:anecst:y:1998:i:49-50:p:329-360
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    Cited by:

    1. Bronwyn H. Hall & Adam B. Jaffe & Manuel Trajtenberg, 2000. "Market Value and Patent Citations: A First Look," NBER Working Papers 7741, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    2. Michael Fritsch & Viktor Slavtchev, 2007. "Universities and Innovation in Space," Industry and Innovation, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 14(2), pages 201-218.
    3. Christian Rammer & Dirk Czarnitzki & Alfred Spielkamp, 2009. "Innovation success of non-R&D-performers: substituting technology by management in SMEs," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 33(1), pages 35-58, June.
    4. Ortega-Argilés , Raquel & Moreno, Rosina, 2009. "Evidence on the role of ownership structure on firms’ innovative performance," INVESTIGACIONES REGIONALES - Journal of REGIONAL RESEARCH, Asociación Española de Ciencia Regional, issue 15, pages 231-250.
    5. Jalal El Ouardighi, 2005. "La spécialisation des activités technologiques des régions européennes : une approche empirique de la convergence," Recherches économiques de Louvain, De Boeck Université, vol. 71(3), pages 315-343.
    6. Michele Cincera, 2005. "Firms' productivity growth and R&D spillovers: An analysis of alternative technological proximity measures," Economics of Innovation and New Technology, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 14(8), pages 657-682.
    7. Ouardighi, Jalal El, 2002. "Dépendance spatiale sur données de panel : application à la relation Brevets-R&D au niveau régional," L'Actualité Economique, Société Canadienne de Science Economique, vol. 78(1), pages 67-86, Mars.
    8. Czarnitzki, Dirk & Licht, Georg, 2004. "Die Rolle der Innovationsförderung im Aufholprozess Ostdeutschlands," ZEW Discussion Papers 04-68, ZEW - Zentrum für Europäische Wirtschaftsforschung / Center for European Economic Research.
    9. Erik Brouwer & Alfred Kleinknecht & Pierre Mohnen & Hans van Ophem, 2001. "R&D and Patents: Which Way Does the Causality Run?," CIRANO Working Papers 2001s-31, CIRANO.
    10. Arundel, Anthony & Kabla, Isabelle, 1998. "What percentage of innovations are patented? empirical estimates for European firms," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 27(2), pages 127-141, June.
    11. Jalal El Ouardighi, 2005. "La spécialisation des activités technologiques des régions européennes : une approche empirique de la convergence," Discussion Papers (REL - Recherches Economiques de Louvain) 2005033, Université catholique de Louvain, Institut de Recherches Economiques et Sociales (IRES).

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