The South Asian Network for Development and Environmental Economics
Contact information of The South Asian Network for Development and Environmental Economics:
Postal: South Asian Network for Development and Environmental Economics PO Box: 8975, EPC: 1056 Kathmandu, Nepal
For corrections or technical questions regarding this series, please contact (Anuradhak)
Series handle: repec:snd:wpaper
Citations RSS feed: at CitEc
Impact factors: Simple (last 10 years), Recursive (10), Discounted (10), Recursive discounted (10), H-Index (10), Aggregate (10)
Access and download statistics
Top item: By citations. By downloads (last 12 months).
Undated material is presented at the end, although it may be more recent than other items
- 83 Weather Variability, Agriculture and Rural Migration: Evidence from State and District Level Migration in India
by Brinda Viswanathan This study explores the three-way linkage between weather variability,�agricultural performance and internal migration in India. We estimate�a two-equation model, which examines variations in weather that�influence crop yield and identifies the resulting effect on the rate�of migration. The analysis uses two variants of migration data -�inter-state out-migration and intra-state district-level in-migration- reported in the Indian Census. The elasticity of the inter-state�out-migration rate with respect to per capita net state domestic�agricultural product is approximately (-)0.75, indicating that a decline�in the value of agricultural output related to weather variations results�in an increase in the out-migration rate. The crop-wise analysis showsthat a one percent decline in rice (wheat) yield leads to nearly 2�percent (1 percent) increase in the rate of out-migration from a state.�The decline in rice yield triggers a higher rate of migration relative to�the decline in wheat yield, possibly because of widespread cultivation�of rice compared to wheat and involvement of family labor for the�cultivation of this labor-intensive crop. Interestingly, the district-level�analysis shows larger magnitudes of estimated change in in-migration�rates relative to changes in crop yields. The results suggest that the�impact of yield changes on the migration rate depend on both the�inter-play between inter- and intra-district migration rates as well�as the crop under consideration. Migration is certainly a potential�adaptation strategy for people adversely affected by the impactof weather and climate change. Our findings suggest that weather�related changes in agricultural productivity do contribute to migration�in India; however, these inter-linked effects have, at least thus far,been relatively small.
- 82 To Cultivate or Not? Examining Factors that Influence Jatropha Agriculture in North East India
by Kishor Goswami This study examines factors that determine the adoption and�continued production of Jatropha in plantations in North East India.�The study is based on a sample of 144 current-farmers, 137 previousfarmers,�and 145 non-growers of Jatropha in the states of Assam and�Arunachal Pradesh. The findings suggest that farmer characteristicssuch as their willingness to take risks, whether they have land that�is not in use in agriculture, and knowledge of the product play an�important role. Institutional factors such as availability of credit,�and structural issues related to product and labor markets and�travel time and distance are important considerations in whether�Jatropha is adopted and plantations are continued. The study shows�that, although there are serious bottlenecks to increasing Jatropha�production, these problems can be remedied with some important�institutional interventions. The study recommends extension ofgovernment credit facilities to farmers since the opportunity costs�of labor and land, the initial low return, and the approximately 7-year�payback period from Jatropha cultivation reduce farmer interest in�continuing with Jatropha cultivation.
- 80 Climate Change, Submergence and Rice Yield: Evidence from Coastal Barisal, Bangladesh
by Afsana Haque In this paper, we investigate the effects of submergence due to heavy rainfall and river over-flow on rice production in the coastal Barisal region of Bangladesh. Our study uses plot level data to compare rice yields of cultivars in high and low submergence prone areas and to analyze variation in yield when high-yielding varieties (HYVs)versus local eeds are used. Results suggest that rice yields are, on average, some 10% lower in ‘high submergence areas' relative to ‘low submergence areas'. Both depth of submergence and duration have a negative effect on yield, with local varieties of rice seemingly better adapted to submergence. The widely grown Aman variety of rice faced an average of nine days of submergence in 2010, with 31% plots under1-3 meters of water for 3-7 days. We forecast that an additional 13,564 hectares or 61% of total cropped Aman area in Barisal is likely to be inundated for 3-7 days in 2050 due to sea level rise and increased storm surge events. Correspondingly, given current levels of technology, we can expect a production loss of 10,856 tons of Aman in the future. The study recommends the introduction of submergence tolerant ricecultivars and low-cost water control technologies as adaptation options against climate change.
- 64 Indigenous Communities, Cooperation, and Communication: Taking Experiments to the Field
by Rucha Ghate Much experimental research has been conducted in laboratory settings on human behavior related to public goods, common-pool resources, and other social dilemmas. These studies have shown that when subjects are anonymous and not allowed to communicate, they tend not to cooperate. However, to the surprise of game theorists, simply allowing subjects to communicate in a laboratory setting enables them to achieve far more cooperative outcomes. The replication of the experiment in laboratory settings in multiple countries as well as in some initial field experiments has only confirmed this important finding. However, while carefully conducted laboratory experiments do have strong internal validity, external validity requires further research beyond the initial field experiments that researchers have begun to conduct. In this paper, we report on a series of common-pool-resource field experiments conducted in eight indigenous communities in India that have very long traditions of shared norms and mutual trust. We used two experimental designs in all eight villages: a "no-communication" game where no one was allowed verbal or written communication and a "communication game" in which the same five participants were allowed to communicate with each other at the beginning of each round before making their decisions. The findings from these field experiments are substantially different from the findings of similar experiments conducted in experimental laboratories. Subjects tended to cooperate in the first design even in the absence of communication. Our findings suggest that the shared norms in these indigenous communities are so deeply embedded that communication is not essential to arrive at cooperative decisions. However, communication does homogenize group and individual outcomes so that communities that are overly cooperative tend to reduce cooperation slightly while those showing small deviations in the other direction move toward the optimal solution.
- 57 User-based Financing of Marine Protection in the Maldives
by Mahadev G. Bhat Maldivian atolls are known for their beautiful coral structures, fish abundance, white sandy beaches, coastal vegetation and mangroves. This paper provides an economic valuation of the recreational uses of atoll-based marine resources in the Republic of the Maldives. We use a travel demand model to estimate the benefits of atoll-based marine tourism. We contribute to the literature by estimating two separate travel demand models-one without and one with endogenous costs. Our results suggest a large disparity between the amount of economic value generated from nature-based tourism and the amount going into atoll conservation. Currently, more than half the Maldivian government's annual environmental protection expenditure comes from unstable international aid, which makes it imperative that more stable financing sources be found. Our study shows that transferring four percent of the total annual recreational benefits from visitors as a one-time conservation fee would generate enough resources to cover government and foreign donor contributions towards environmental protection. The additional per tourist tax or user fee necessary to raise funds at the current level of conservation funding (domestic and overseas) is USD 41. This amount constitutes only a small percentage of what an average tourist spends on each trip (1.25 percent) and the economic surplus (benefit) s/he derives from each trip (3.98 percent). The paper concludes with a discussion of the policy implications of sustainable user-based financing mechanisms.
- 51 Unbelievable but True -- Improved cook-stoves are not helpful in reducing firewood demand in Nepal
by Mani Nepal
- 5 Taxing the Pollution: A Case for Reducing the Environmental Impacts of Rubber Production in Sri Lanka
by Jagath Edirisinghe & Susantha Siriwardana
- 36 The Economic Impact of Forest Hydrological Services on Local Communities: A Case Study from the Western Ghats of India
by Sharachchandra Lele & Iswar Patil & Shrinivas Badiger
- 32 Awareness and the Demand for Environmental Quality: Drinking Water in Urban India
by Jyotsna Jalan
- 17 Groundwater Irrigation in North India: Institutions and Markets
by A. Banerji
- 13 Who Collects Resources in Degraded Environment? A Case Study from Jhabua District, India
by Neetu Chopra & Supriya Singh & Shreekant Gupta