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The Knowledge Production of 'R' and 'D'

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  • Thorwarth, Susanne
  • Kraft, Kornelius
  • Czarnitzki, Dirk

Abstract

Many studies investigate the relationship between R&D expenditures as an input and patents as an intermediate product or output of a knowledge production function. We suggest that the productivity of research in patent production functions has been underestimated in the literature, as scholars typically use information about R&D, i.e. the sum of research expenditure and development expenditure, due to data availability. However, in most industries only (applied) research will lead to patentable knowledge, and development happens after the initial research phase that may have led to a patent. Instead of using data on R&D, we separate the knowledge creating process into 'R' and 'D'. This data stems from R&D surveys of Belgian firms. It turns out that only the 'R' part of R&D expenditure has a significant effect on patents and that development expenditure are insignificant. Thus previous literature relying on R&D expenditure suffers from a measurement error, such that the coefficient of R&D is biased towards zero, as R&D includes a large fraction of irrelevant expenditure, i.e. development expenditure, with respect to patenting. --

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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by ZEW - Zentrum für Europäische Wirtschaftsforschung / Center for European Economic Research in its series ZEW Discussion Papers with number 08-046.

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Date of creation: 2008
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Handle: RePEc:zbw:zewdip:7356

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Keywords: Patents; Research; Development; Knowledge Production Function;

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References

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  1. repec:fth:harver:1473 is not listed on IDEAS
  2. Wesley M Cohen & Richard R Nelson & John P Walsh, 2003. "Protecting Their Intellectual Assets: Appropriability Conditions and Why U.S. Manufacturing Firms Patent (Or Not)," Levine's Working Paper Archive 618897000000000624, David K. Levine.
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  7. Zvi Griliches, 1990. "Patent Statistics as Economic Indicators: A Survey," NBER Working Papers 3301, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  8. Arundel, Anthony & Kabla, Isabelle, 1998. "What percentage of innovations are patented? empirical estimates for European firms," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 27(2), pages 127-141, June.
  9. Crepon, Bruno & Duguet, Emmanuel, 1997. "Research and development, competition and innovation pseudo-maximum likelihood and simulated maximum likelihood methods applied to count data models with heterogeneity," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 79(2), pages 355-378, August.
  10. Zvi Griliches, 1998. "Productivity, R&D, and Basic Research at the Firm Level in the 1970s," NBER Chapters, in: R&D and Productivity: The Econometric Evidence, pages 82-99 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
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Citations

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Cited by:
  1. Uppenberg, Kristian, 2009. "Innovation and economic growth," EIB Papers 1/2009, European Investment Bank, Economics Department.
  2. Ientile, Damien & Mairesse, Jacques, 2009. "A policy to boost R&D: Does the R&D tax credit work?," EIB Papers 6/2009, European Investment Bank, Economics Department.
  3. d'Artis Kancs & Boriss Siliverstovs, 2012. "R&D and Non-Linear Productivity Growth of Heterogeneous Firms," JRC-IPTS Working Papers on Corporate R&D and Innovation 2012-06, Institute of Prospective Technological Studies, Joint Research Centre.
  4. Barge-Gil, Andrés & López, Alberto, 2011. "R versus D: Estimating the differentiated effect of research and development on innovation results," MPRA Paper 29091, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  5. Hagedoorn, John & Wang, Ning, 2012. "Is there complementarity or substitutability between internal and external R&D strategies?," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 41(6), pages 1072-1083.
  6. Martin Falk, 2014. "Corporate patents and knowledge sourcing from universities," Empirica, Springer, vol. 41(1), pages 83-100, February.
  7. Czarnitzki, Dirk, 2009. "The virtue of industry-science collaborations," EIB Papers 5/2009, European Investment Bank, Economics Department.
  8. Helmers, Christian & Schulte, Christian & Strauss, Hubert, 2009. "Business R&D expenditure and capital in Europe," EIB Papers 2/2009, European Investment Bank, Economics Department.
  9. Barge-Gil, Andrés & López, Alberto, 2013. "R&D and productivity: In search of complementarity between research and development activities," MPRA Paper 43808, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  10. Czarnitzki, Dirk & Thorwarth, Susanne, 2012. "Productivity effects of basic research in low-tech and high-tech industries," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 41(9), pages 1555-1564.
  11. Mc Morrow, Kieran & Röger, Werner, 2009. "R&D capital and economic growth: The empirical evidence," EIB Papers 4/2009, European Investment Bank, Economics Department.
  12. De Rassenfosse, Gaétan & Wastyn, Annelies, 2012. "Selection bias in innovation studies: A simple test," ZEW Discussion Papers 12-012, ZEW - Zentrum für Europäische Wirtschaftsforschung / Center for European Economic Research.
  13. Czarnitzki, Dirk & Hottenrott, Hanna & Thorwarth, Susanne, 2009. "Industrial research versus development investment: the implications of financial constraints," ZEW Discussion Papers 09-049, ZEW - Zentrum für Europäische Wirtschaftsforschung / Center for European Economic Research.
  14. Antonio Vezzani & Sandro Montresor, 2013. "The production function of top R&D investors: Accounting for size and sector heterogeneity with quantile estimations," JRC-IPTS Working Papers on Corporate R&D and Innovation 2013-02, Institute of Prospective Technological Studies, Joint Research Centre.
  15. Jérôme Danguy & Gaétan de Rassenfosse & Bruno van Pottelsberghe de la Potterie, 2013. "On the Origins of the Worldwide Surge in Patenting: An Industry Perspective on the R&D-Patent Relationship," Melbourne Institute Working Paper Series wp2013n15, Melbourne Institute of Applied Economic and Social Research, The University of Melbourne.

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