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Public research and industrial innovations in Germany

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  • Beise, Marian
  • Stahl, Harald

Abstract

This paper deals with the effects of publicly funded research at universities, polytechnics and federal research labs on industrial innovations in Germany. We discuss the characteristics of companies that benefit from the findings of public research institutions. In questioning 2,300 companies we found that less than one tenth of product or process innovating firms introduced innovations between 1993 and 1995 that would not have been developed without public research. These new products amount to approximately 5 percent of all new product sales. Regressions show that firms? own R&D support the ability to absorb the findings of public research and turn them into innovations. Contrary to the widely held opinion that proximity to public research institutions does promote collaboration between firms and public research and increase the amount of received knowledge spillovers, we found no higher probability of publicly supported innovations for firms in Germany that are located near universities or polytechnics. -- Wie viele industrielle Innovationen bringt die öffentliche Forschung hervor? Die vorliegende Untersuchung versucht, diese Frage zu beantworten und damit die wirtschaftliche Rechtfertigung für Finanzierung und Durchführung von natur- und ingenieurwissenschaftlicher Forschung in öffentlichen Forschungseinrichtungen empirisch zu überprüfen. Hierfür wurden rund 2.300 Unternehmen in der vierten Innovationserhebung von ZEW und infas im Jahr 1996 gefragt, ob sich unter ihren zwischen 1993 und 1995 eingeführten Innovationen neue Produkte und Prozesse befanden, die ohne die neueren Forschungsergebnisse von Hochschulen und anderen öffentlichen finanzierten Forschungseinrichtungen nicht oder nur mit zeitlicher Verzögerung von mehr als einem Jahr aufgenommen worden wären. Knapp 9 % der Unternehmen mit Innovationen in dem betrachteten Zeitraum bejahten diese Frage. Mit den Produkten, die nur mit Hilfe der öffentlichen Forschung zustande kamen, wurden 1995 allerdings weniger als 5 % des gesamten Umsatzes mit neuen Produkten gemacht. Der Technologietransfer von den öffentlichen Forschungseinrichtungen wird dabei entscheidend von den eigenen FuE-Aktivitäten der Unternehmen begünstigt. Sie sind nötig um die wissenschaftlichen Ergebnisse im Unternehmen in marktgerechte Innovationen umzusetzen. Dagegen wirkt sich die räumliche Nähe zu Forschungseinrichtungen, die unter dem Stichwort regionale High-Tech-Agglomerationen diskutiert wird, nicht auf den Technologietransfer aus.

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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by ZEW - Zentrum für Europäische Wirtschaftsforschung / Center for European Economic Research in its series ZEW Discussion Papers with number 98-37.

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Date of creation: 1998
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Handle: RePEc:zbw:zewdip:5209

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Keywords: technology transfer; industrial innovation; knowledge spillovers;

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