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Evaluating the Impacts of Subsidies on Innovation Activities in Germany

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  • Hujer, Reinhard
  • Radić, Dubravko
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    Abstract

    Innovations are a key factor to ensure the competitiveness of establishments as well as to enhance the growth and wealth of nations. But more than any other economic activity, decisions about innovations are plagued by failures of the market mechanism. As a response, public instruments have been implemented to stimulate private innovation activities. The effectiveness of these measures, however, is ambiguous and calls for an empirical evaluation. In this paper we make use of the IAB Establishment Panel and apply various microeconometric methods to estimate the effect of public measures on innovation activities of German establishments. We find that neglecting sample selection due to observable as well as to unobservable characteristics leads to an overestimation of the treatment effect and that there are considerable differences with regard to size class and between West and East German establishments. --

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    Bibliographic Info

    Paper provided by ZEW - Zentrum für Europäische Wirtschaftsforschung / Center for European Economic Research in its series ZEW Discussion Papers with number 05-43.

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    Date of creation: 2005
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    Handle: RePEc:zbw:zewdip:3286

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    Keywords: R&D policy; innovation; microeconometric evaluation;

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    References

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    1. Heckman, James J & Ichimura, Hidehiko & Todd, Petra, 1998. "Matching as an Econometric Evaluation Estimator," Review of Economic Studies, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 65(2), pages 261-94, April.
    2. Klette, Tor Jakob & Moen, Jarle & Griliches, Zvi, 2000. "Do subsidies to commercial R&D reduce market failures? Microeconometric evaluation studies1," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 29(4-5), pages 471-495, April.
    3. David, Paul A. & Hall, Bronwyn H. & Toole, Andrew A., 2000. "Is public R&D a complement or substitute for private R&D? A review of the econometric evidence," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 29(4-5), pages 497-529, April.
    4. Almus, Matthias & Czarnitzki, Dirk, 2001. "The effects of public R&D subsidies on firms' innovation activities: the case of Eastern Germany," ZEW Discussion Papers 01-10, ZEW - Zentrum für Europäische Wirtschaftsforschung / Center for European Economic Research.
    5. Czarnitzki, Dirk, 2001. "Die Auswirkung der Forschungs- und Technologiepolitik auf die Innovationsaktivitäten ostdeutscher Unternehmen," ZEW Discussion Papers 01-05, ZEW - Zentrum für Europäische Wirtschaftsforschung / Center for European Economic Research.
    6. Klette, T.J. & Moen, J., 1998. "From Growth Theory to Technology Policy -Coordination Problems in Theory and Practice," Papers 20/98, Norwegian School of Economics and Business Administration-.
    7. Michael Lechner, 2002. "Program Heterogeneity And Propensity Score Matching: An Application To The Evaluation Of Active Labor Market Policies," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 84(2), pages 205-220, May.
    8. James Heckman & Hidehiko Ichimura & Jeffrey Smith & Petra Todd, 1998. "Characterizing Selection Bias Using Experimental Data," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 66(5), pages 1017-1098, September.
    9. Lichtenberg, Frank R, 1984. "The Relationship between Federal Contract R&D and Company R&D," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 74(2), pages 73-78, May.
    10. Bruce D. Meyer, 1994. "Natural and Quasi- Experiments in Economics," NBER Technical Working Papers 0170, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    11. Lerner, Josh, 1999. "The Government as Venture Capitalist: The Long-Run Impact of the SBIR Program," The Journal of Business, University of Chicago Press, vol. 72(3), pages 285-318, July.
    12. Andreas Fier & Dietmar Harhoff, 2002. "Die Evolution der bundesdeutschen Forschungs- und Technologiepolitik: Rückblick und Bestandsaufnahme," Perspektiven der Wirtschaftspolitik, Verein für Socialpolitik, vol. 3(3), pages 279-301, 08.
    13. Douglas A. Irwin & Peter J. Klenow, 1994. "High Tech R&D Subsidies: Estimating the Effects of Sematech," NBER Working Papers 4974, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    14. Bronwyn H. Hall & Zvi Griliches & Jerry A. Hausman, 1984. "Patents and R&D: Is There A Lag?," NBER Working Papers 1454, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    15. Evans, William N & Schwab, Robert M, 1995. "Finishing High School and Starting College: Do Catholic Schools Make a Difference?," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, MIT Press, vol. 110(4), pages 941-74, November.
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    Cited by:
    1. Raffaello Bronzini & Eleonora Iachini, 2011. "Are incentives for R&D effective? Evidence from a regression discontinuity approach," Temi di discussione (Economic working papers) 791, Bank of Italy, Economic Research and International Relations Area.
    2. Nishimura, Junichi & Okamuro, Hiroyuki, 2011. "Subsidy and networking: The effects of direct and indirect support programs of the cluster policy," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 40(5), pages 714-727, June.
    3. Aerts, Kris & Schmidt, Tobias, 2008. "Two for the price of one?: Additionality effects of R&D subsidies: A comparison between Flanders and Germany," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 37(5), pages 806-822, June.
    4. Aerts, Kris & Schmidt, Tobias, 2006. "Two for the price of one? On additionality effects of R&D subsidies: A comparison between Flanders and Germany," ZEW Discussion Papers 06-63, ZEW - Zentrum für Europäische Wirtschaftsforschung / Center for European Economic Research.
    5. Juana Rivera-Lirio & María Muñoz-Torres, 2010. "The Effectiveness of the Public Support Policies for the European Industry Financing as a Contribution to Sustainable Development," Journal of Business Ethics, Springer, vol. 94(4), pages 489-515, July.
    6. Tommy Clausen, 2008. "Do subsidies have positive impacts on R&D and innovation activities at the firm level?," Working Papers on Innovation Studies 20070615, Centre for Technology, Innovation and Culture, University of Oslo.
    7. Emmanuel Duguet, 2008. "L’effet du credit d’impôt recherche sur le financement privé de la recherche : une évaluation économétrique," Documents de recherche 08-08, Centre d'Études des Politiques Économiques (EPEE), Université d'Evry Val d'Essonne.
    8. Barbara ERMINI, 2008. "Oltre Gibrat. Capitale umano dei fondatori, endogeneita' del finanziamento pubblico e crescita delle giovani imprese hi-tech italiane," Working Papers 322, Universita' Politecnica delle Marche (I), Dipartimento di Scienze Economiche e Sociali.

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