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The Impact of Public Funds on Private R&D Investment: New Evidence from a Firm Level Innovation Study

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  • Heshmati, Almas
  • Loof, Hans

Abstract

This paper investigates the effectiveness of a public innovation policy aimed at stimulating private R&D investment. The research will examine whether public funding increases the total spending on research or merely displaces funding from private sources. The empirical analysis is based on the Community Innovation Surveydata merged with register data. It is an evaluation of whether firms receiving public funds have on average a higher R&D intensity compared to those not receiving any such support. In order to account for possible selectivity bias, and to improve comparability of firms, two different versions of a semi-parametric matching approach are employed. The two matching estimators result in somewhat different results. The Nearest Neighbour estimator is preferred to the Kernel estimator. The results support the hypothesis suggesting that there are additive effects of public R&D financing on private research expenditures, but the only beneficiaries are small firms.

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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by MTT Agrifood Research Finland in its series Discussion Papers with number 11862.

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Date of creation: 2005
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Handle: RePEc:ags:mttfdp:11862

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Keywords: Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies;

References

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  1. James Heckman & Hidehiko Ichimura & Jeffrey Smith & Petra Todd, 1998. "Characterizing Selection Bias Using Experimental Data," NBER Working Papers 6699, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  2. David, Paul A. & Hall, Bronwyn H. & Toole, Andrew A., 1999. "Is Public R&D a Complement or Substitute for Private R&D? A Review of the Econometric Evidence," Department of Economics, Working Paper Series qt1sz6g8bv, Department of Economics, Institute for Business and Economic Research, UC Berkeley.
  3. Czarnitzki, Dirk & Fier, Andreas, 2001. "Do R&D subsidies matter? Evidence for the German service sector," ZEW Discussion Papers 01-19, ZEW - Zentrum für Europäische Wirtschaftsforschung / Center for European Economic Research.
  4. Dominique Guellec & Bruno Van Pottelsberghe De La Potterie, 2003. "The impact of public R&D expenditure on business R&D," Economics of Innovation and New Technology, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 12(3), pages 225-243.
  5. Douglas A. Irwin & Peter J. Klenow, 1994. "High Tech R&D Subsidies: Estimating the Effects of Sematech," NBER Working Papers 4974, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  6. Hall, Bronwyn, 2002. "The Financing of Research and Development," Department of Economics, Working Paper Series qt5rf0x9gz, Department of Economics, Institute for Business and Economic Research, UC Berkeley.
  7. Klette, T.J. & Moen, J., 1998. "From Growth Theory to Technology Policy -Coordination Problems in Theory and Practice," Papers 20/98, Norwegian School of Economics and Business Administration-.
  8. Klette, T.J. & Moen, J. & Griliches, Z., 1999. "Do Subsidies to Commercial R&D Reduce Market Failures? Microeconometric Evaluation Studies," Papers 16/99, Norwegian School of Economics and Business Administration-.
  9. Jeffrey Smith, 2000. "A Critical Survey of Empirical Methods for Evaluating Active Labor Market Policies," Swiss Journal of Economics and Statistics (SJES), Swiss Society of Economics and Statistics (SSES), vol. 136(III), pages 247-268, September.
  10. Heckman, James J & Ichimura, Hidehiko & Todd, Petra, 1998. "Matching as an Econometric Evaluation Estimator," Review of Economic Studies, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 65(2), pages 261-94, April.
  11. Adam B. Jaffe, 2002. "Building Programme Evaluation into the Design of Public Research-Support Programmes," Oxford Review of Economic Policy, Oxford University Press, vol. 18(1), pages 22-34, Spring.
  12. Michael Lechner, 2002. "Program Heterogeneity And Propensity Score Matching: An Application To The Evaluation Of Active Labor Market Policies," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 84(2), pages 205-220, May.
  13. Jeffrey Smith & Petra Todd, 2003. "Does Matching Overcome Lalonde's Critique of Nonexperimental Estimators?," University of Western Ontario, CIBC Centre for Human Capital and Productivity Working Papers 20035, University of Western Ontario, CIBC Centre for Human Capital and Productivity.
  14. Isabel Busom, 2000. "An Empirical Evaluation of The Effects of R&D Subsidies," Economics of Innovation and New Technology, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 9(2), pages 111-148.
  15. Heckman, James J, 1979. "Sample Selection Bias as a Specification Error," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 47(1), pages 153-61, January.
  16. Bruno Van Pottelsberghe & Dominique Guellec, 1999. "Does government support stimulates private R&D," ULB Institutional Repository 2013/6231, ULB -- Universite Libre de Bruxelles.
  17. Heckman, James J & Ichimura, Hidehiko & Todd, Petra E, 1997. "Matching as an Econometric Evaluation Estimator: Evidence from Evaluating a Job Training Programme," Review of Economic Studies, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 64(4), pages 605-54, October.
  18. Richard R. Nelson, 1959. "The Simple Economics of Basic Scientific Research," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 67, pages 297.
  19. Hyytinen, Ari & Toivanen, Otto, 2005. "Do financial constraints hold back innovation and growth?: Evidence on the role of public policy," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 34(9), pages 1385-1403, November.
  20. Lerner, Josh, 1999. "The Government as Venture Capitalist: The Long-Run Impact of the SBIR Program," The Journal of Business, University of Chicago Press, vol. 72(3), pages 285-318, July.
  21. Arthur M. Diamond, 1999. "Does Federal Funding "Crowd In" Private Funding Of Science?," Contemporary Economic Policy, Western Economic Association International, vol. 17(4), pages 423-431, October.
  22. Petr Hanel, 2003. "Impact Of Government Support Programs On Innovation By Canadian Manufacturing Firms," Cahiers de recherche 04-02, Departement d'Economique de la Faculte d'administration à l'Universite de Sherbrooke.
  23. Lechner, Michael, 1999. "Earnings and Employment Effects of Continuous Off-the-Job Training in East Germany after Unification," Journal of Business & Economic Statistics, American Statistical Association, vol. 17(1), pages 74-90, January.
  24. Saul Lach, 2000. "Do R&D Subsidies Stimulate or Displace Private R&D? Evidence from Israel," NBER Working Papers 7943, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
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Citations

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Cited by:
  1. Tarek SADRAOUI & Adnen CHOCKRI, 2011. "Relationship Between Private and Public Investment in R&D: A Dynamic Panel Data Analysis," Review of Economic and Business Studies, Alexandru Ioan Cuza University, Faculty of Economics and Business Administration, issue 8, pages 197-212, December.
  2. Aschhoff, Birgit, 2009. "Who Gets the Money? The Dynamics of R&D Project Subsidies in Germany," ZEW Discussion Papers 08-018 [rev.], ZEW - Zentrum für Europäische Wirtschaftsforschung / Center for European Economic Research.
  3. Giovanni Cerulli & Bianca Poti', 2008. "Evaluating the Effect of Public Subsidies on firm R&D activity: an Application to Italy Using the Community Innovation Survey," CERIS Working Paper 200809, Institute for Economic Research on Firms and Growth - Moncalieri (TO).
  4. Giovanni Cerulli, 2008. "Modelling and measuring the effects of public subsidies on business R&D: theoretical and econometric issues," CERIS Working Paper 200803, Institute for Economic Research on Firms and Growth - Moncalieri (TO).
  5. Simachev, Yuri & Kuzyk, Mikhail & Feygina, Vera, 2014. "Russian policies in support of innovation: elusive quest for efficiency," MPRA Paper 56750, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  6. Gustavo A. Crespi & Alessandro Maffioli & Pierre Mohnen & Gonzalo Vázquez, 2011. "Evaluating the Impact of Science, Technology and Innovation Programs: a Methodological Toolkit," SPD Working Papers 1104, Inter-American Development Bank, Office of Strategic Planning and Development Effectiveness (SPD).

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