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National institutions and high tech industries: A varieties of capitalism perspective on the failure of Germany's Neuer Markt

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  • Vitols, Sigurt
  • Engelhardt, Lutz
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    Abstract

    One of the more prominent recent failures in institutional innovation in Germany was the Neuer Markt (1997-2003), a special segment of the Frankfurt stock exchange designed for high-growth companies. Based in part on insights from the law and economics approach to agency theory, which emphasizes transparency in financial reporting and shareholder rights, the Neuer Markt was an attempt to promote high-tech sectors through increasing the supply of risk capital in Germany. Proponents of the agency approach have suggested that the Neuer Markt failed because reporting requirements and shareholder protection were still inadequate, and have argued for even stricter financial regulation. This paper offers an alternative explanation for the failure of the Neuer Markt based on the Varieties of Capitalism (VOC) approach. This explanation focuses on the complementarities between financial markets and labor markets. Successful entrepreneurial companies require both capital and experienced managers and scientists willing to take higher risks in search of higher returns. Although the supply of risk-friendly capital increased briefly in the late 1990s in Germany, labor markets did not fundamentally change. In particular, mobility in the market for mid-career scientists and managers remains quite low, making it difficult for startups to attract the experienced knowledge workers they need to succeed. -- Einer der letzten bedeutenden Fehlschläge bezüglich institutioneller Innovation in Deutschland war der Neue Markt (1997-2003), ein spezielles Segment der Frankfurter Börse, das für Wachstumsunternehmen konzipiert worden war. Auf Beiträgen des Recht- und Ökonomie-Ansatzes der Agency-Theory basierend, welcher transparente Unternehmensberichterstattung und Kleinanlegerschutz betont, war der Neue Markt ein Versuch, High-Tech-Sektoren in Deutschland durch höheren Risikokapitalzufluss voran zu bringen. Befürworter des Agency- Ansatzes vertreten auch nach dem Scheiterns des Neuen Marktes die Ansicht, der Neue Markt sei ein Misserfolg gewesen, da Offenlegungspflicht und Aktionärsschutz noch nicht ausreichend ausgeprägt waren. Eine ihrer Forderungen für zukünftige Politikentwürfe sind folgerichtig noch strengere Regulationen an den Aktienmärkten. Dieser Text bietet eine alternative Erklärung für den Misserfolg des Neuen Marktes, die sich auf den „Varieties of Capitalism“-Ansatz (VOC) beruft. Sie richtet sich auf Komplementaritäten zwischen Finanz- und Arbeitsmärkten. Erfolgreiche Unternehmen benötigen nicht nur Kapital, sondern auch erfahrene Manager und Wissenschaftler, die bereit sind, auf der Suche nach höheren Erträgen das Risiko einer Anstellung bei einem Wachstumsunternehmen einzugehen. Obwohl das Angebot von risikofreundlichem Kapital in Deutschland in den späten 90er Jahren kurz anstieg, änderten sich die Arbeitsmärkte nicht grundlegend. Insbesondere blieb die Mobilität von Wissenschaftlern und Managern zur Mitte ihrer Laufbahn recht niedrig, was es für Wachstumsunternehmen schwierig machte, erfahrene Wissensarbeiter zu rekrutieren. Dies entzog jungen Unternehmen das für schnelles Wachstum und den wirtschaftlichen Erfolg benötigte Talent.

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    Bibliographic Info

    Paper provided by Social Science Research Center Berlin (WZB) in its series Discussion Papers, Research Unit: Institutions, States, Markets with number SP II 2005-03.

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    Date of creation: 2005
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    Handle: RePEc:zbw:wzbism:spii200503

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    Related research

    Keywords: Startups; Venture Capital; IPO; Stock Market; High Tech; Software;

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    References

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    1. Rafael LaPorta & Florencio Lopez de-Silanes & Andrei Shleifer & Robert W. Vishny, 1997. "Legal Determinants of External Finance," Harvard Institute of Economic Research Working Papers 1788, Harvard - Institute of Economic Research.
    2. Luigi Guiso & Michael Haliassos & Tullio Jappelli, 2002. "Household Stockholding in Europe: Where Do We Stand and Where Do We Go?," University of Cyprus Working Papers in Economics 0209, University of Cyprus Department of Economics.
    3. Hall, Peter A. & Soskice, David (ed.), 2001. "Varieties of Capitalism: The Institutional Foundations of Comparative Advantage," OUP Catalogue, Oxford University Press, number 9780199247752.
    4. Rafael LaPorta & Florencio Lopez de-Silanes & Andrei Shleifer & Robert W. Vishny, 1996. "Law and Finance," Harvard Institute of Economic Research Working Papers 1768, Harvard - Institute of Economic Research.
      • Rafael La Porta & Florencio Lopez-de-Silane & Andrei Shleifer & Robert W. Vishny, 1996. "Law and Finance," NBER Working Papers 5661, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
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      • La Porta, Rafael & Lopez-de-Silanes, Florencio & Shleifer, Andrei & Vishny, Robert W., 1998. "Law and Finance," Scholarly Articles 3451310, Harvard University Department of Economics.
    5. Williamson, Oliver E, 1988. " Corporate Finance and Corporate Governance," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 43(3), pages 567-91, July.
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    Cited by:
    1. Engelhardt, Lutz, 2007. "Der Entry Standard der Frankfurter Wertpapierbörse als Nachfolger des Neuen Marktes: Zwei Versuche institutioneller Innovation in Deutschland," Discussion Papers, Research Unit: Institutions, States, Markets SP II 2007-05, Social Science Research Center Berlin (WZB).
    2. Gil Avnimelech & Alessandro Rosiello & Morris Teubal, 2010. "Evolutionary interpretation of venture capital policy in Israel, Germany, UK and Scotland," Science and Public Policy, Oxford University Press, vol. 37(2), pages 101-112, March.

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