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Milchverarbeitung und -vermarktung in Deutschland - eine deskriptive Analyse der Wertschöpfungskette

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  • Friedrich, Carina
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    Abstract

    Die Wertschöpfungskette Milch in Deutschland steht vor der Herausforderung, sich in einem zunehmend liberalisierten Milch- und Milchproduktmarkt zu behaupten. Neben der Milchproduktion hat in der Wertschöpfungskette vor allem die Milchverarbeitung eine zentrale Funktion. Diese veredelt den international relativ homogenen Rohstoff Milch zu sehr unterschiedlichen Produkten. Die speziellen Produkteigenschaften von Milch (geringe Transportwürdigkeit und Lagerfähigkeit) erfordern zudem eine sehr enge Kopplung der beiden Wertschöpfungsstufen Milchproduktion und -verarbeitung. Dabei stehen sich in der Wertschöpfungskette viele Landwirte und einige Molkereien einem stark konzentrierten Lebensmitteleinzelhandel gegenüber. Die Molkereistruktur ist in Deutschland mittelständisch geprägt und weist einen abgeschwächten Strukturwandel auf. Dabei haben sich Konzernstrukturen gebildet. Die Konzentration der Unternehmen ist im europäischen Vergleich gering. Bei der Produktionsausrichtung sind regionale Schwerpunkte in Deutschland festzustellen. Im Norden werden tendenziell mehr Trockenmilcherzeugnisse und im Süden mehr Milchmischprodukte erzeugt. Insgesamt werden entsprechend der Verzehrsentwicklungen in Europa immer mehr Käse und Frischmilchprodukte produziert. Der Absatz von Milchprodukten in Deutschland ist dabei international orientiert, wobei der europäische Binnenmarkt im Vordergrund steht. Bei einzelnen Milchproduktgruppen, wie beispielsweise Käse, werden vor allem günstige Produkte exportiert und höherpreisige Produkte importiert. Die Molkereiunternehmen sind im Absatz mit einem stark konzentrierten Lebensmitteleinzelhandel konfrontiert. Im Lebensmitteleinzelhandel sind ein starker Verdrängungswettbewerb und ein zunehmender Trend hin zu Handelsmarken sowie eine Sortimentspolarisierung hin zu Handelsmarken und Premiummarken festzustellen. Deutsche Lebensmitteleinzelhandelsunternehmen sind international wettbewerbsfähig und expandieren zum Teil weltweit. Qualitätsmanagementsysteme sind dabei weit verbreitet und wichtige Vorraussetzungen für Absatzmöglichkeiten. -- The German dairy supply chain has to meet the challenge of a liberalising dairy market. Besides milk production milk processing plays a vital role in the dairy supply chain, within which milk, an internationally relatively homogeneous commodity, is processed into various products. The specific product properties of milk (low suitability for transport and storage) demand a very close linkage between dairy production and processing. At the same time there are a lot of milk producers and some dairies facing a high concentrated food retailing sector. The German milk processing structure is medium-sized and shows a weakened structural change. Thereby company structures have formed. In comparison with other European countries the companies are low concentrated. In Germany regional milk processing focuses on different orientations. In the north there is a relative high production of dry dairy products and in the south production concentrates on cheese and fresh dairy products. Overall more and more fresh dairy products and cheese are manufactured according to the development of the European food pattern. German distribution of milk products is internationally orientated, but mainly with a focus on the EU market. In case of single milk products, for example cheese, cheap products are exported and more expansive products are imported. Dairy companies are confronted with a high concentrated food retailing sector. Within the food retailing sector a strong crowding out takes place and the sales trend shows product polarisation in retail labels and brands. German retailing companies are internationally competitive and some are showing expansion world wide. Quality management systems are common around the world and are required in retailing.

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    Bibliographic Info

    Paper provided by Johann Heinrich von Thünen Institute, Federal Research Institute for Rural Areas, Forestry and Fisheries in its series Arbeitsberichte aus der vTI-Agrarökonomie with number 06/2010.

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    Date of creation: 2010
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    Handle: RePEc:zbw:vtiaba:062010

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    Web page: http://www.ti.bund.de/en/startseite/home.html
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    Keywords: Wertschöpfungskette Milch; Milchwirtschaft; Molkereistruktur; Strukturanalyse; Dairy Supply Chain; Dairy Economy; Structure of Milk Processing; Structure Analysis;

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    Cited by:
    1. Loy, Jens-Peter & Holm, Thore & Steinhagen, Carsten, 2012. "Vertical Price Transmission In Differentiated Product Markets: A Disaggregated Study For Milk And Butter," 2012 Annual Meeting, August 12-14, 2012, Seattle, Washington, Agricultural and Applied Economics Association 123284, Agricultural and Applied Economics Association.
    2. Loy, Jens-Peter & Holm, Thore & Steinhagen, Carsten & Glauben, Thomas, 2014. "Cost Pass-Through In Differentiated Product Markets: A Disaggregated Study For Milk And Butter," 88th Annual Conference, April 9-11, 2014, AgroParisTech, Paris, France, Agricultural Economics Society 169762, Agricultural Economics Society.

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