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Fragmentierung - Außenhandel unter den Bedingungen vertikaler Globalisierung: Ein Überblick

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  • Sell, Friedrich L.
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    Abstract

    Dieser Beitrag soll einen Überblick und eine Systematik im Hinblick auf die aktuellen Beiträge zum Phänomen der Fragmentierung geben. Während man im Zusammenhang mit der Ausweitung des Nord-Süd-Handels von einer "horizontalen Globalisierung" spricht, gilt Fragmentierung als Ausdruck einer Vertiefung des internationalen Handels ("vertikale Globalisierung"). Wir diskutieren die Einführung von Komponenten in den Produktionsprozeß zunächst im Rahmen eines Ricardo-Modells für eine kleine offene Volkswirtschaft, anschließend im Zwei-Länder-Fall. Danach gehen wir zu Modellen mit zwei Faktoren bei unterschiedlichen Produktionstechnologien über, wobei die Verwendung einer oder mehrerer Komponenten implementiert wird. Es zeigt sich, daß Fragmentierung zu einer erheblichen Änderung in der Struktur, in der Verteilung komparativer Kostenvorteile innerhalb der Weltwirtschaft und bei den Terms of Trade führt. Bei den Komponenten wird vermutet, daß solche, die humankapitalintensiv (arbeitsintensiv) sind, tendenziell im Norden (Süden) der Weltwirtschaft produziert werden. Schwieriger gestaltet sich die Aufgabe, Auswirkungen der Fragmentierung auf die funktionale Einkommensverteilung innerhalb aber auch zwischen den Ländern abzuschätzen, welche intensiv untereinander Handel treiben. Unter den theoretisch denkbaren scheinen die besonders relevanten Fälle darauf hinzudeuten, daß es zu sinkenden (steigenden) Löhnen für einfache (qualifizierte) Arbeit sowohl in Entwicklungs- als auch in Industrieländern kommen wird. -- This paper is a review article in which we attempt to systematise recent contributions on the phenomenon of fragmentation. Whereas the growth in North-South trade has been labeled "horizontal globalisation", fragmentation stands for the "vertical globalisation". First fragmentation is introduced into a Ricardian model with one factor of production in a small country, later on in two countries. Then we proceed to model with two factors of production and different types of production functions where we introduce one or two components. As a result, it seems to be clear that fragmentation is changing dramatically the distribution of comparative advantage across the world economy and the existing terms of trade. Most likely, components which make use of human capital (labour) intensively will be produced in the North (South) of the world economy. It is more difficult to assess the impact of fragmentation on the aggregate factor income distribution within and between countries inter-linked by trade. From the cases, which can theoretically occur, the most relevant is rising (falling) wages for human capital (labour) both in developing and in developed countries.

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    Bibliographic Info

    Paper provided by Universität der Bundeswehr München, Economic Research Group in its series Working Papers in Economics with number 2001,2.

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    Date of creation: 2001
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    Handle: RePEc:zbw:ubwwpe:20012

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    Related research

    Keywords: Fragmentierung; Globalisierung; Internationaler Handel; Funktionale Einkommensverteilung; Fragmentation; Globalisation; International Trade; Aggregate Factor Income Distribution;

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    1. Holger Görg, 2000. "Fragmentation and trade: US inward processing trade in the EU," Review of World Economics (Weltwirtschaftliches Archiv), Springer, Springer, vol. 136(3), pages 403-422, 09.
    2. Venables, Anthony J., 1999. "Fragmentation and multinational production," European Economic Review, Elsevier, Elsevier, vol. 43(4-6), pages 935-945, April.
    3. Slaughter, Matthew J., 2000. "Production transfer within multinational enterprises and American wages," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, Elsevier, vol. 50(2), pages 449-472, April.
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